Next Article in Journal
Mortality from Unspecified Unintentional Injury among Individuals Aged 65 Years and Older by U.S. State, 1999–2013
Previous Article in Journal
Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

Department of International Medical Management, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungbuk 38430, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 760;
Original submission received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults.

1. Introduction

Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczematous lesions and intense itching, is a global public health concern not only in children but also in adults [1,2,3]. AD is caused by a genetic predisposition and environmental factors, including null mutations in filaggrin (FLG), climate, urban living, and diet [4,5]. However, the major etiologic factor remains unknown.
AD may be associated with psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and personality disorders [6,7]. Of the many factors related to AD, psychological stress is thought to be particularly important [6,8]. Furthermore, numerous studies have demonstrated that psychological stress has a significant impact on skin inflammation [9].
Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between stress and AD [10,11]. Most have reported that psychological stress exacerbates AD, and patients with AD experience a worsening of the skin after exposure to stress [12,13,14]. Considering the mechanism, psychological stress produces various neuroendocrine mediators, including adrenocorticotropin, β-endorphin, catecholamines, and cortisol, which in turn activates local neurogenic inflammation and disrupts skin barrier function [15]. Although the association between AD and mental health comorbidities in children and adolescents has been well established [16], there are only a few recent population-based studies of AD for adults [17,18].
Although AD most frequently starts in early infancy and persists during adolescence, it is also highly prevalent in adults [19]. However, relatively little is known about the association between AD and psychological stress in adults, particularly in Koreans. The psychological stress response was conceptualized as perceived stress in this study. In the present study, the self-rated perceived stress level was used as a measure of participants’ perception regarding how much stress they are under in everyday life. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the association between perceived stress and AD in Korean adults by using data obtained from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative survey conducted in the Republic of Korea.

2. Methods

2.1. Study Population

This study was based on data from the fourth and fifth waves (2007–2012) of KNHANES, provided by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Samples from KNHANES were selected using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster-sampling design with proportional allocation based on the National Census Registry. Detailed information on the survey design and sampling procedures has been reported elsewhere [20]. Using weighted data from the 2007–2012 KNHANES databases, 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older who had no missing responses on the questionnaire were included in this study.

2.2. Data Collection

KNHANES included questions on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, smoking and drinking habits, and psychological health. Information regarding AD and stress was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The criterion for AD was self-reported current AD. The level of perceived stress was measured using the following question: “How much stress do you usually feel?” Four response options were provided: “only a little”, “to some extent”, “to a great extent”, and “to a very great extent”, which were labeled as low, medium, high, and very high levels of perceived stress, respectively. The KNHANES program is approved by the KNHANES Institutional Review Board (IRB) (# KCDC-2007-02CON-04-P, KCDC-2008-04EXP-01-C, KCDC-2009-01CON-03-2C, KCDC-2010-02CON-21-C, KCDC-2011-02CON-06-C, KCDC-2012-01EXP-01-2C) and was conducted in accordance with the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, as defined by the Helsinki Declaration. All study participants provided informed written consent.

2.3. Statistical Analyses

As appropriate, the frequency, mean, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to describe the demographic characteristics according to categories of AD or perceived stress. We evaluated differences in categorical variables using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test, and differences among groups in continuous variables were examined using the linear trend test. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CIs for AD among participants who reported medium to very high stress compared with the reference group (those who reported low stress). The presence of a linear trend was evaluated by defining a linear contrast in each of the linear and logistic regression models. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS v9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Statistical analyses accounted for the survey design, and appropriate procedures in SAS, such as surveyfreq and surveylogistic, were used with weighted data.

3. Results

This study included 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older; 607 (1.8%) reported having AD. The prevalence rates of AD did not differ significantly according to sex, BMI (body mass index), income, and alcohol consumption. However, age, educational level, and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with prevalence of AD (Table 1). The mean age of participants with and without AD was 41.5 year and 50.4 year, respectively.
The demographic characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 2 by severity of self-reported stress. The severity of self-reported stress was significantly correlated with sex, age, educational level, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (p for trend <0.001).
Table 3 shows the population-weighted prevalence and ORs (odds ratio) of AD by self-reported stress. A significant positive trend was observed between the level of stress and AD prevalence (p for trend <0.001), with 1.26% of adults who felt low levels of stress reporting AD compared with 3.47% of those who felt very high levels of stress. Additionally, the crude and adjusted ORs for AD were positively correlated with increased self-reported stress (p for trend <0.001). In the full adjusted model (model 3), the ORs for AD were 1.22 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.73) among those who reported medium levels of stress, 1.81 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.67) among those who reported high levels of stress, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42) among those who reported very high levels of stress compared with those who reported low levels of stress.

4. Discussion

This nationwide population-based study of Korean adults found that 1.8% of participants had AD, which is quite similar to the results of a recent study showing a 1.88% of AD prevalence in Korean adults [21]. This finding is consistent with previous reports that AD is one of the most common skin diseases, with a prevalence of 1% to 3% in adults [22,23]. In previous population-based studies, the prevalence of AD was 1.2% in Korean males aged around 20 years, whereas the prevalence of AD among adolescents aged 12–18 years was 22.4% [24,25]. In this study, we found that females were more stressed than males, which is consistent with a report that in Korea, women are more likely to experience stress and depression than men [26]. In addition, psychological stress was correlated with smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. Similar to our results, many experimental and epidemiological studies support the relationships between stress and such behaviors [27,28].
The results of this study show that psychological stress is related to AD in Korean adults. We found that participants with higher levels of stress had an increased prevalence of AD compared with those who had lower levels of perceived stress. Moreover, the ORs of AD were significantly increased with increasing psychological stress even after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, higher self-reported levels of psychological stress were associated with higher odds of AD and the association was robust after adjusting for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Compared with those in children or adolescents, few epidemiological studies have been conducted on relationships between AD and psychological stress in adults [29]. However, several studies reported that adult patients with AD have significantly higher levels of psychological stress, including depression, than adults without AD [29,30]. Notably, a recent study reported a strong association between psychological stress and AD among young Korean males around 20 years old [24]. These findings are consistent with the results of the present study showing that psychological stress is strongly associated with AD in adults.
The mechanisms underlying the association between psychological stress and AD are not fully understood. One possible mechanism underpinning these associations involves the role of cytokines as peripheral inflammatory mediators that modulate bidirectional communication between systemic inflammatory responses and brain functions, such as stress and depression [31]. Alternatively, psychological stress may lead to AD-relevant immunological changes via activation of neuroendocrine pathways including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympatho-adrenomedullary system or via direct nervous inputs [32]. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that neurotrophin- and neuropeptide-dependent neurogenic inflammation exerts stress-induced aggravation of allergic flares [33].
The present study has several limitations. As a result of the cross-sectional design, we were unable to establish a temporal relationship between AD and psychological stress; therefore, causality could not be determined. We relied on self-reports to assess stress levels, which may have led to misclassification and measurement errors. However, self-reporting of perceived stress provides an appropriate measure of the actual levels of stress experienced by individuals [34]. Additionally, information about AD was obtained via self-reports rather than direct diagnosis, which may have led to reporting bias. Despite these limitations, this is the first study assessing the association between psychological stress and AD in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Thus, given the advantages of systematic sampling, the results of this study can be generalized to all Korean adults. Future research, including cohort studies, will be important for assessing the causal relationship between psychological stress and the pathogenesis or severity of AD in adult populations.

5. Conclusions

In this study, we found that perceived stress was strongly associated with AD in Korean adults. Given that stress interferes with several physiological and pathological processes, our results emphasize that stress may play an important role in the etiology and prognosis of AD. Because AD affects the physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational outlook of the patient, at great cost not only to the patient but also to society, broad social policies and interventions are required to mitigate psychological stress in adults. In addition, an assessment of psychological factors would be important to identify a high-risk subpopulation, which would allow earlier intervention and thereby prevent the onset and exacerbation of AD.


This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (Nos. NRF-2016R1A2B4011596, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01056617).

Author Contributions

Hyejin Park contributed to data analysis and interpretation, statistical analysis, and drafting the manuscript. Kisok Kim contributed to design of the study, critical revision of the manuscript, and supervision of the study. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Bieber, T. Atopic dermatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008, 358, 1483–1494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Kelsay, K.; Klinnert, M.; Bender, B. Addressing psychosocial aspects of atopic dermatitis. Immunol. Allergy Clin. N. Am. 2010, 30, 385–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Carroll, C.L.; Balkrishnan, R.; Feldman, S.R.; Fleischer, A.B., Jr.; Manuel, J.C. The burden of atopic dermatitis: Impact on the patient, family, and society. Pediatr. Dermatol. 2005, 22, 192–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Irvine, A.D.; McLean, W.H.; Leung, D.Y. Filaggrin mutations associated with skin and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 2011, 365, 1315–1327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Flohr, C.; Mann, J. New insights into the epidemiology of childhood atopic dermatitis. Allergy 2014, 69, 3–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Schut, C.; Weik, U.; Tews, N.; Gieler, U.; Deinzer, R.; Kupfer, J. Psychophysiological effects of stress management in patients with atopic dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial. Acta Dermato Venereol. 2013, 93, 57–61. [Google Scholar]
  7. Buske-Kirschbaum, A.; Geiben, A.; Hellhammer, D. Psychobiological aspects of atopic dermatitis: An overview. Psychother. Psychosom. 2001, 70, 6–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Peters, E.M.; Michenko, A.; Kupfer, J.; Kummer, W.; Wiegand, S.; Niemeier, V.; Potekaev, N.; Lvov, A.; Gieler, U. Mental stress in atopic dermatitis—Neuronal plasticity and the cholinergic system are affected in atopic dermatitis and in response to acute experimental mental stress in a randomized controlled pilot study. PLoS ONE 2014, 9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Dhabhar, F.S. Psychological stress and immunoprotection vs. immunopathology in the skin. Clin. Dermatol. 2013, 31, 18–30. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  10. Kimyai-Asadi, A.; Usman, A. The role of psychological stress in skin disease. J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 2001, 5, 140–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Picardi, A.; Abeni, D. Stressful life events and skin diseases: Disentangling evidence from myth. Psychother. Psychosom. 2001, 70, 118–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Hashizume, H.; Takigawa, M. Anxiety in allergy and atopic dermatitis. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2006, 6, 335–339. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Kimata, H. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome by playing video games or by a frequently ringing mobile phone. Eur. J. Clin. Investig. 2003, 33, 513–517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Buske-Kirschbaum, A.; Geiben, A.; Hölligm, H.; Morschhäuser, E.; Hellhammer, D. Altered responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary system to stress in patients with atopic dermatitis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002, 87, 4245–4251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Senra, M.S.; Wollenberg, A. Psychodermatological aspects of atopic dermatitis. Br. J. Dermatol. 2014, 170 (Suppl. 1), 38–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Yaghmaie, P.; Koudelka, C.W.; Simpson, E.L. Mental health comorbidity in patients with atopic dermatitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2013, 131, 428–433. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Simpson, E.L. Comorbidity in atopic dermatitis. Curr. Dermatol. Rep. 2012, 1, 29–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Silverberg, J.I.; Hanifin, J.M. Adult eczema prevalence and associations with asthma and other health and demographic factors: A U.S. population-based study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2013, 132, 1132–1138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Weidinger, S.; Novak, N. Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 2016, 387, 1109–1122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Yun, B.H.; Choi, Y.R.; Choi, Y.S.; Cho, S.; Lee, B.S.; Seo, S.K. Age at first delivery and osteoporosis risk in Korean postmenopausal women: The 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). PLoS ONE 2015, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Kim, S.; Lee, J.Y.; Oh, J.Y.; Chekal, L.; Lee, D.C. The association between atopic dermatitis and depressive symptoms in Korean adults: The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2012. Korean J. Fam. Med. 2015, 36, 261–265. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Orfali, R.L.; Shimizu, M.M.; Takaoka, R.; Zaniboni, M.C.; Ishizaki, A.S.; Costa, A.A.; Tiba, A.P.; Sato, M.N.; Aoki, V. Atopic dermatitis in adults: Clinical and epidemiological considerations. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 2013, 59, 270–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Leung, D.Y.; Boguniewicz, M.; Howell, M.D.; Nomura, I.; Hamid, Q.A. New insights into atopic dermatitis. J. Clin. Investig. 2004, 113, 651–657. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Kim, S.H.; Hur, J.; Jang, J.Y.; Park, H.S.; Hong, C.H.; Son, S.J.; Chang, K.J. Psychological distress in young adult males with atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015, 94, 949. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Kwon, J.A.; Park, E.C.; Lee, M.; Yoo, K.B.; Park, S. Does stress increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in adolescents? Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VI). PLoS ONE 2013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Song, T.M.; An, J.Y.; Hayman, L.L.; Woo, J.M.; Yom, Y.H. Stress, depression, and lifestyle behaviors in Korean adults: A latent means and multi-group analysis on the Korea Health Panel Data. Behav. Med. 2016, 42, 72–81. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Wang, Y.; Chen, X.; Gong, J.; Yan, Y. Relationships between stress, negative emotions, resilience, and smoking: Testing a moderated mediation model. Subst. Use Misuse 2016, 51, 427–438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Keyes, K.M.; Hatzenbuehler, M.L.; Grant, B.F.; Hasin, D.S. Stress and alcohol: Epidemiologic evidence. Alcohol Res. 2012, 34, 391–400. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  29. Rod, N.H.; Kristensen, T.S.; Lange, P.; Prescott, E.; Diderichsen, F. Perceived stress and risk of adult-onset asthma and other atopic disorders: A longitudinal cohort study. Allergy 2012, 67, 1408–1414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Takaki, H.; Ishii, Y. Sense of coherence, depression, and anger among adults with atopic dermatitis. Psychol. Health Med. 2013, 18, 725–734. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Wilson, C.J.; Finch, C.E.; Cohen, H.J. Cytokines and cognition—The case for a head-to-toe inflammatory paradigm. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2002, 50, 2041–2056. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Buske-Kirschbaum, A.; Schmitt, J.; Plessow, F.; Romanos, M.; Weidinger, S.; Roessner, V. Psychoendocrine and psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms in the comorbidity of atopic eczema and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013, 38, 12–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Theoharides, T.C.; Alysandratos, K.D.; Angelidou, A.; Delivanis, D.A.; Sismanopoulos, N.; Zhang, B.; Asadi, S.; Vasiadi, M.; Weng, Z.; Miniati, A.; et al. Mast cells and inflammation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2012, 1822, 21–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Nielsen, N.R.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kristensen, T.S.; Netterstrøm, B.; Schnohr, P.; Grønbaek, M. Self reported stress and risk of breast cancer: Prospective cohort study. BMJ 2005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Table 1. Distribution of demographic characteristics by prevalence of atopic dermatitis among Korean adults ≥20 years of age (n (%)).
Table 1. Distribution of demographic characteristics by prevalence of atopic dermatitis among Korean adults ≥20 years of age (n (%)).
CharacteristicsNo.AD (% within Group)No AD (% within Group)p-Value a
Total33,018607 (100)32,411 (100)
Sex 0.685
Male13,985262 (43.2)13,723 (42.3)
Female19,033345 (56.8)18,688 (57.7)
Age (years) <0.001
20–3910,136331 (54.5)9805 (30.3)
40–5912,316170 (28.0)12,146 (37.5)
≥6010,566106 (17.5)10,460 (32.3)
BMI 0.416
<18.5148436 (5.9)1448 (4.5)
18.5–22.913,123241 (39.7)12,882 (39.8)
23–27.414,457255 (42.0)14,202 (43.8)
≥27.5395475 (12.4)3879 (12.0)
Education <0.001
<high school12,408142 (23.4)12,266 (37.9)
high school9440153 (25.2)9287 (28.7)
>high school11,170312 (51.4)10,858 (33.5)
Income 0.500
Q1 (lowest)8111154 (25.4)7957 (24.6)
Q28294139 (22.9)8155 (25.2)
Q38327147 (24.2)8180 (25.2)
Q4 (highest)8286167 (27.5)8119 (25.1)
Cigarette smoking 0.001
Yes10,175226 (37.2)9949 (30.7)
No22,843381 (62.8)22,462 (69.3)
Alcohol drinking 0.109
Yes17,213336 (55.4)16,877 (52.1)
No15,805271 (44.7)15,534 (47.9)
Abbreviations: AD, atopic dermatitis; BMI, body mass index. a p-Values were calculated using a Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test.
Table 2. Demographic characteristics by categories of self-reported stress.
Table 2. Demographic characteristics by categories of self-reported stress.
CharacteristicsStressp-Value a
Low (n = 5527)Medium (n = 18,472)High (n = 7442)Very High (n = 1577)
AD, n (%)61 (1.10)312 (1.69)188 (2.53)46 (2.92)<0.001
Gender, % female53.456.662.263.3<0.001
Mean age, year (95% CI)59.5 (59.1, 59.9)48.8 (48.6, 49.0)47.2 (46.8, 47.6)49.3 (48.5, 50.1)<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (95% CI)23.9 (23.8, 24.0)23.6 (23.6, 23.6)23.7 (23.6, 23.7)23.9 (23.7, 24.1)0.753
Education > high school, %21.635.738.731.1<0.001
Income, US$/month (95% CI)2502 (2302, 2702)3247 (3132, 3362)3104 (2918, 3291)2805 (2519, 3091)0.315
Cigarette smoking, %30.329.832.835.0<0.001
Alcohol drinking, %43.853.854.550.5<0.001
Abbreviations: AD, atopic dermatitis; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index. a p-Values were calculated using a Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for categorical variables or by a linear trend test for continuous variables.
Table 3. Weighted prevalence and odds ratios (95% CI) of atopic dermatitis by self-reported stress.
Table 3. Weighted prevalence and odds ratios (95% CI) of atopic dermatitis by self-reported stress.
StressLowMediumHighVery Highp for Trend
Prevalence, %1.261.913.023.47<0.001
OR (95% CI)
Model 11.00 (reference)1.52 (1.09, 2.14)2.43 (1.68, 3.53)2.81 (1.80, 4.38)<0.001
Model 21.00 (reference)1.20 (0.85, 1.69)1.80 (1.22, 2.65)2.18 (1.39, 3.43)<0.001
Model 31.00 (reference)1.22 (0.86, 1.73)1.81 (1.22, 2.67)2.17 (1.38, 3.42)<0.001
Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. Model 1: crude model. Model 2: adjusted for sex and age. Model 3: adjusted for sex, age, BMI, education, income, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Park, H.; Kim, K. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 760.

AMA Style

Park H, Kim K. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(8):760.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Hyejin, and Kisok Kim. 2016. "Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 8: 760.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop