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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

by Annalaura Carducci 1,†, Gabriele Donzelli 1,*,†, Lorenzo Cioni 2,† and Marco Verani 1,†
1
Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Virology, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via S. Zeno 35/39, Pisa 56127, Italy
2
Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa 56126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andrew Watterson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070733
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment)
Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantitative microbial risk assessment; airborne infectious; human adenovirus (HAdV); occupational exposure quantitative microbial risk assessment; airborne infectious; human adenovirus (HAdV); occupational exposure
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Carducci, A.; Donzelli, G.; Cioni, L.; Verani, M. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 733.

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