2. Research Methodology
3. Data Analysis
3.1. Selected Papers Profile
3.2. Measurements Used
3.3. Understanding FFH Accidents
3.4. Leading Factors to FFH Accidents
3.4.1. Risky Construction Activities
3.4.2. Individual Characteristics
3.4.3. Site Conditions
3.4.6. Weather/Environmental Conditions
3.5. FFH Prevention Strategies
Conflicts of Interest
|No.||Analysed Categories||Paper 1||Paper 2|
|2||Journal||International Journal of Construction Education and Research||Journal of Safety Research|
|3||Title||Investigation of Factors Contributing to Fatal and Nonfatal Roofer Fall Accidents||Construction workers’ falls through roofs: Fatal versus serious injuries|
|4||Keywords||project management, quantitative research, roofer falls, safety management||Occupation; Risk factor; Falls from heights; |
Personal protective equipment; and Descriptive analysis
|5||Study type||Analytical study||Analytical study|
|6||Fall type||fall from elevation||Fall from roofs|
|7||fall causes||1-unguarded /improperly secured platforms, etc.|
2-Roofers can fall from roof edges, roof openings, etc.
3-fall factors: victim’s age, experience, trade, accident proximal and root cause, fall location, fall distance, injury characteristics, and site conditions,
|1-type of elevation fall (e.g., fall from, fall through);|
2-working surface (e.g., ladder, scaffold, roof);
3-construction branch and occupation; and 4-mechanism of the incident (e.g., roof tiles, roof sheets, and skylights/roof lights);
|8||Fall effects||1-suffer trauma, 2-loss of life and |
3-lowered productivity due to work-related accidents.
|1-amputations, 2-bone fractures, and|
3-injury to extensive parts of the body
|9||Statistical/methods used||1-cross-tabulation analysis; 2-logistic regression modelling; 3-Univariate statistical analysis; 4-Pearson chi-square statistic; and 5-Odds ratio (OR)||1-Odds ratio, 2-chi-square test, 3-T test,|
|10||Worker’s trade||Roofer||carpenter, electrician, nonskilled|
|11||Activities performed||Roofing, skylights, and scaffolding||replacing roof sheets and installing insulation,|
|13||Building type||Residential||General Construction|
|14||Final results||Roofers most frequently experienced falls while working heights below 20 feet. |
Fall accidents involving roofers more frequently result in nonfatal injuries than in fatalities.
Non-union roofers experience a higher frequency of falls than union roofers.
Fall distances between 10 and 20 feet showed the highest fatality as well as nonfatal injury frequencies.
|1-N = 38, 19 fatal and 19 serious injury fall incidents, majority of their working hours are before 1:00 p.m. |
2-From 7:00 a.m. to 12:59, 8 incidents occurred in the morning hours and 2 incidents in the afternoon hours, 3-Eyewitness and autopsy reports, involved a worker suffering an alcohol-related abstinence seizure while working with a colleague on a roof.
|15||Conclusions||1-This is attributed to the fact that roofers are specialized skilled trades; they are often not engaged in non-routine tasks. |
2-the union status variable is not significantly related to the degree of injury.
3-Human factors involving misjudgement of hazardous situation and inappropriate choice of equipment/process produced the highest frequencies of fatal and nonfatal falls, where fatalities were fewer in both cases.
|1-Majority of fatal injury falls occurred in the afternoon hours. |
2-The majority of known times of fatal injury elevation falls in all economic sectors (42%), as well as in construction (42%), and the 10 cases focused on in this study (50%)—occurred in the 3-h time period between 1:00 p.m. and 3:59 p.m. 3-Occupational injuries in construction industries in different countries have identified roofing and roofers in particular, as having elevated risks of fatal falls from heights.
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|No.||Journals||Articles Met Criteria|
|1||Journal of Safety Research||10|
|4||Accident Analysis and Prevention||5|
|5||Journal of Construction Engineering and Management.||4|
|6||Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine||4|
|7||Research and Practice for Fall Injury Control in the Workplace (conference proceeding 2010)||4|
|8||Construction Management and Economics||3|
|9||Forensic science international||3|
|10||American Journal of Industrial Medicine||3|
|11||Computers & Industrial Engineering||2|
|12||International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics||2|
|13||Other Journals (less than 2 papers per journal)||22|
|Sample Size||No. of Articles||Percentage|
|Worker Trade||No. Articles|
|Manual labour (Skilled & unskilled workers) & masonry||26|
|Plumber & pipefitter||8|
|Sheet/Structural metal installer||3|
|Performed Activity||No. Articles|
|Erecting/dismantling of scaffold||20|
|Installing sheet/structural metal installer||4|
|Construction Type||No. Articles||Percentage|
|Commercial (light& heavy commercial & non-residential & public buildings)||16||21%|
|No.||Data Collection Type||No. of Articles||Percentage|
|5||No FFH accident data used||4||5%|
|Statistical Method||Purpose||No. Articles||References|
|Median, Mean, & Standard Deviation||Simple Statistical Description||6||[10,18,19,20,21,22]|
|Frequency analysis||Simple Statistical Description||4||[14,23,24,25]|
|Chi-square & Pearson||Statistical relationship significance analysing, comparison, computing differences & responses among factors, studying variables relationships and correlations analysis||14||[3,4,10,19,23,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34]|
|Regression analysis, Linear regression, Poisson regression & Multiple linear regression||Examine for statistically significant, calculate adjusted rate ratios, determine significant predictors, and determine amount of variance||10||[5,29,31,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]|
|Ratio analysis, Likelihood ratio test & Odds ration||Assess relative hazards, Extrapolate among factors and Compare population groups.||6||[4,5,17,26,27,36]|
|ANOVA Analysis||Analysis of variance, determine causes, identify significant differences, compare performance in different groups, account for intervention/control status, and determine relationships.||4||[19,32,37,42]|
|Cross-Tabulation Analysis||Determine factor relationships, provide more specific injury descriptions.||3||[26,30,43]|
|Phi coefficient analysis & Cramer’s V, T-test||Examine relationship among factors.||7||[3,27,30,33,36,37,44]|
|Other methods||For significance of statistical modelling and sufficient representing, Investigate overlapped relationships, etc.||10||[3,10,26,28,30,32,38,40,41,45]|
|Fall from Height Categories||Expression Used||Proportion of Appearance|
|Agents||Fall from scaffold||23%|
|Fall from ladder||17%|
|Surfaces||Platform, openings, walkways & skylights and other high objects||11%|
|Buildings||Fall from roof/building||16%|
|Fall from (same/different/lower) level||15%|
|No.||Fall Effect||No. of Articles||References|
|4||Contusion, Concussion, Bruise & Abrasion||9||[16,24,37,39,43,48,50,51,54]|
|No.||Factors||Variables||No. of Papers||References|
|1||Risky Activities||Working at Height: with complexity, hardship, prolong tasks||39||[3,4,5,6,7,10,14,15,16,18,21,24,26,27,28,30,31,32,35,36,38,39,42,44,47,48,49,50,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68]|
|2||Individual Characteristics||Demography: age, gender, weight, ethnicity etc. Knowledge Level: lack of education, experience, training, etc. Human behaviours: misjudgement, attitude, unsafe behaviour & carelessness, etc. Workers health/characteristics: fatigue, sleep deprivation or depression||31||[4,6,7,9,15,16,19,24,26,27,28,30,31,33,38,40,45,47,54,55,57,66,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77]|
|3||Site Conditions||Insufficient lighting & illumination Unprotected/defective platform & surface||13||[7,15,23,26,43,49,50,55,57,59,70,71,72]|
|4||Organization/Management||Small-medium sized companies: lack training programs; Contractors & sub-contractors: lack of proper/safe equipment; Shift work: night shifts and break periods; Project Timeline: pressure to accelerate.||11||[3,6,28,41,55,58,59,69,73,76,78]|
|5||Agent||Improper position or defective: ladder/scaffold (erecting/dismantling)||5||[6,16,23,73,79]|
|6||Weather/Environmental Conditions||Frost, snow, heavy rain, humid extreme temperatures, noise, dust, etc.||4||[19,29,41,80]|
|No.||Safety Strategies||Actions Taken to Prevent/Mitigate FFH Accidents||References|
|1||On-site Precautionary measures||Minimize amount of hazardous agents & duration. Professionally set up for agents (scaffold/ladder); Utilise technological agent: safety monitoring systems, positioning device systems, Controlled access zones, warning line systems. Site proactive actions: Guardrails, surface protections; Safety nets; Helmets;|
personal fall arrest systems (FAS); personal protection equipment (PPE); and Safety harnesses; etc.
|2||Educating and Training||Design specific courses; |
Training for unskilled workers;
Courses on how to use scaffolding agents (scaffold/ladder) properly;
Workshops on safety for unskilled/new workers through safety seminars and talks; etc.
Stimulate employees to follow safety regulations.
|3||Safety Regulations||Frequent revision of safety regulations and regular inspections of sites.||[69,74]|
|4||Research and Development||Searching on-site potential risks related to FFH accidents; |
Systematic research on the behaviour of individuals & groups and construction companies.
|5||Job redesign||Redesign weight for lifting (e.g., blocks and reduced-weight cement bags),|
Developing scaffold erection and dismantling methods, and
Improve the ergonomics of the workplace (e.g., comfortable temperature, modest humidity, enough illumination level, noise reduction) to reducing the impact of FFHs.
|6||Health protections||Mitigate height operations when workers suffer from physical disorders: |
Shorten the periods of workers suffering from chronic disease:
Forbidding working at height if alcohol/drug has been detected.
|7||Safety promotion||Roving exhibitions, banners and posters, |
Safety and health messages,
Broadcasting dramas of documentaries through;
Television, radio and mobile media;
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