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A Toxicological Framework for the Prioritization of Children’s Safe Product Act Data

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communications, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA 98504, USA
Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helena Solo-Gabriele and Alesia Ferguson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 431;
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
PDF [963 KB, uploaded 19 April 2016]


In response to concerns over hazardous chemicals in children’s products, Washington State passed the Children’s Safe Product Act (CSPA). CSPA requires manufacturers to report the concentration of 66 chemicals in children’s products. We describe a framework for the toxicological prioritization of the ten chemical groups most frequently reported under CSPA. The framework scores lifestage, exposure duration, primary, secondary and tertiary exposure routes, toxicokinetics and chemical properties to calculate an exposure score. Four toxicological endpoints were assessed based on curated national and international databases: reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. A total priority index was calculated from the product of the toxicity and exposure scores. The three highest priority chemicals were formaldehyde, dibutyl phthalate and styrene. Elements of the framework were compared to existing prioritization tools, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ExpoCast and Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi). The CSPA framework allowed us to examine toxicity and exposure pathways in a lifestage-specific manner, providing a relatively high throughput approach to prioritizing hazardous chemicals found in children’s products. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical prioritization; ToxCast; ExpoCast; consumer products; children’s health chemical prioritization; ToxCast; ExpoCast; consumer products; children’s health

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Smith, M.N.; Grice, J.; Cullen, A.; Faustman, E.M. A Toxicological Framework for the Prioritization of Children’s Safe Product Act Data. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 431.

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