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Open AccessArticle

EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute for Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Postfach 1129, Neuherberg 85758, Germany
Wort & Bild Verlag Konradshöhe GmbH & Co. KG, Baierbrunn 82065, Germany
Munich Center of Health Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Ludwigstr. 28 RG, Munich 80539, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harry H.X. Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 343;
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity in Primary Care)
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population. View Full-Text
Keywords: EQ-5D-5L; cross-section; reference values; Germany EQ-5D-5L; cross-section; reference values; Germany
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Huber, M.B.; Reitmeir, P.; Vogelmann, M.; Leidl, R. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 343.

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