Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention
Previous Article in Journal
Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 192;

Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Lodz University of Technology, 90 924 Łódź, Poland
Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz, 85 796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Department of Agrobiotechnology, Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), 3430 Tulln an der Donau, Austria
Department of Microbiology and Food Technology, University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz, 85 796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Department of Personal Protective Equipment, Central Institute for Labour Protection, National Research Institute, 00 701 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [478 KB, uploaded 4 February 2016]   |  


The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health. View Full-Text
Keywords: poultry farm; microorganisms; air quality; VOCs; mycotoxins; settled dust poultry farm; microorganisms; air quality; VOCs; mycotoxins; settled dust

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Skóra, J.; Matusiak, K.; Wojewódzki, P.; Nowak, A.; Sulyok, M.; Ligocka, A.; Okrasa, M.; Hermann, J.; Gutarowska, B. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 192.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top