Next Article in Journal
The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1221;

Spatial Characteristics and Driving Factors of Provincial Wastewater Discharge in China

Faculty of Resources and Environmental Science, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
Regional Development and Environmental Response Key Laboratory of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430062, China
Ningbo Polytechnic, Ningbo 315800, China
Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China
School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [4023 KB, uploaded 9 December 2016]   |  


Based on the increasing pressure on the water environment, this study aims to clarify the overall status of wastewater discharge in China, including the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wastewater discharge and its driving factors, so as to provide reference for developing “emission reduction” strategies in China and discuss regional sustainable development and resources environment policies. We utilized the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) method to analyze the characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of the total wastewater discharge among 31 provinces in China from 2002 to 2013. Then, we discussed about the driving factors, affected the wastewater discharge through the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method and classified those driving factors. Results indicate that: (1) the total wastewater discharge steadily increased, based on the social economic development, with an average growth rate of 5.3% per year; the domestic wastewater discharge is the main source of total wastewater discharge, and the amount of domestic wastewater discharge is larger than the industrial wastewater discharge. There are many spatial differences of wastewater discharge among provinces via the ESDA method. For example, provinces with high wastewater discharge are mainly the developed coastal provinces such as Jiangsu Province and Guangdong Province. Provinces and their surrounding areas with low wastewater discharge are mainly the undeveloped ones in Northwest China; (2) The dominant factors affecting wastewater discharge are the economy and technological advance; The secondary one is the efficiency of resource utilization, which brings about the unstable effect; population plays a less important role in wastewater discharge. The dominant driving factors affecting wastewater discharge among 31 provinces are divided into three types, including two-factor dominant type, three-factor leading type and four-factor antagonistic type. In addition, the proposals aimed at reducing the wastewater discharge are provided on the basis of these three types. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater discharge; LMDI; ESDA; spatio-temporal evolution; driving factor wastewater discharge; LMDI; ESDA; spatio-temporal evolution; driving factor

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, K.; Liu, X.; Ding, L.; Huang, G.; Li, Z. Spatial Characteristics and Driving Factors of Provincial Wastewater Discharge in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top