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The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

1
Huxley Environmental College, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA
2
School of Commerce, Meiji University, Tokyo 101-8301, Japan
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Department of Mathematics, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7133-7153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707133
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. View Full-Text
Keywords: sister cities; learning cities; social capital; proportional odds modeling; quality of life; sustainability; Japan sister cities; learning cities; social capital; proportional odds modeling; quality of life; sustainability; Japan
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Buckley, P.H.; Takahashi, A.; Anderson, A. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7133-7153.

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