Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review of Community Readiness Tool Applications: Implications for Reporting
Previous Article in Journal
Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey
Article

Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

1
Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea 17674, Greece
2
Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rio 26500, Greece
3
Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC 27713, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3439-3452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120403439
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarette; tobacco; nitrosamines; aldehydes; nitrates; phenols; nicotine electronic cigarette; tobacco; nitrosamines; aldehydes; nitrates; phenols; nicotine
MDPI and ACS Style

Farsalinos, K.E.; Gillman, I.G.; Melvin, M.S.; Paolantonio, A.R.; Gardow, W.J.; Humphries, K.E.; Brown, S.E.; Poulas, K.; Voudris, V. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3439-3452. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120403439

AMA Style

Farsalinos KE, Gillman IG, Melvin MS, Paolantonio AR, Gardow WJ, Humphries KE, Brown SE, Poulas K, Voudris V. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(4):3439-3452. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120403439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farsalinos, Konstantinos E., I. G. Gillman, Matt S. Melvin, Amelia R. Paolantonio, Wendy J. Gardow, Kathy E. Humphries, Sherri E. Brown, Konstantinos Poulas, and Vassilis Voudris. 2015. "Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, no. 4: 3439-3452. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120403439

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop