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Open AccessArticle

Hypertension and the Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D and E

1
Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
2
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), 46010 Valencia, Spain
4
Internal Medicine Department, Rio Hortega University Hospital, 47012 Valladolid, Spain
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Genotyping and Genetic Diagnosis Unit Hospital Clinic Research Foundation and INCLIVA, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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CIBER Diabetes y Enferemedades Metabolicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Biochemistry Department, Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol, University of Málaga, Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), 29603 Marbella, Málaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2793-2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120302793
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Hypertension affects populations globally and is thus a public health and socio-economic problem. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are common in the general population, and may be even more prevalent in hypertensive patients. This study aimed to determine a possible association between hypertension and intake of fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. Participants were from the cross-sectional Hortega nutrition study conducted with a random sample of 1514 people (50.3% women, 49.7% men) and two groups: nonhypertensive controls ≥40 years old (n = 429; 28.3%); unknown untreated hypertension cases ≥40 years old (n = 246; 16.2%). Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were taken. Data on dietary intakes, education, socio-economic status, place of residence, health habits, comorbidities, alcohol consumption and smoking were collected and assessed. A descriptive data study was done and compared by ANOVA and Chi-Square. No p value higher than 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that vitamin A intake was higher in the hypertensive subpopulation (1732.77 ± 962.27 µg vs. 1655.89 ± 902.81 µg), and vitamin D and E intakes were lower (8.13 ± 9.71 µg vs. 8.25 ± 9.52 µg and 18.79 ± 7.84 mg vs. 18.60 ± 8.20 mg, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in any adjusted model. This study did not significantly associate intake of vitamins A, D and E with hypertension in people aged over 40. Future studies on this topic and a larger sample are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; fat-soluble vitamin; nutritional deficiency hypertension; fat-soluble vitamin; nutritional deficiency
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Llopis-González, A.; Rubio-López, N.; Pineda-Alonso, M.; Martín-Escudero, J.C.; Chaves, F.J.; Redondo, M.; Morales-Suarez-Varela, M. Hypertension and the Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D and E. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2793-2809.

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