Next Article in Journal
Ensuring Healthy American Indian Generations for Tomorrow through Safe and Healthy Indoor Environments
Next Article in Special Issue
Correlation of Zinc with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2793-2809;

Hypertension and the Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D and E

Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), 46010 Valencia, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Rio Hortega University Hospital, 47012 Valladolid, Spain
Genotyping and Genetic Diagnosis Unit Hospital Clinic Research Foundation and INCLIVA, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
CIBER Diabetes y Enferemedades Metabolicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Biochemistry Department, Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol, University of Málaga, Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), 29603 Marbella, Málaga, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [774 KB, uploaded 4 March 2015]   |  


Hypertension affects populations globally and is thus a public health and socio-economic problem. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are common in the general population, and may be even more prevalent in hypertensive patients. This study aimed to determine a possible association between hypertension and intake of fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E. Participants were from the cross-sectional Hortega nutrition study conducted with a random sample of 1514 people (50.3% women, 49.7% men) and two groups: nonhypertensive controls ≥40 years old (n = 429; 28.3%); unknown untreated hypertension cases ≥40 years old (n = 246; 16.2%). Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were taken. Data on dietary intakes, education, socio-economic status, place of residence, health habits, comorbidities, alcohol consumption and smoking were collected and assessed. A descriptive data study was done and compared by ANOVA and Chi-Square. No p value higher than 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that vitamin A intake was higher in the hypertensive subpopulation (1732.77 ± 962.27 µg vs. 1655.89 ± 902.81 µg), and vitamin D and E intakes were lower (8.13 ± 9.71 µg vs. 8.25 ± 9.52 µg and 18.79 ± 7.84 mg vs. 18.60 ± 8.20 mg, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in any adjusted model. This study did not significantly associate intake of vitamins A, D and E with hypertension in people aged over 40. Future studies on this topic and a larger sample are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; fat-soluble vitamin; nutritional deficiency hypertension; fat-soluble vitamin; nutritional deficiency

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Llopis-González, A.; Rubio-López, N.; Pineda-Alonso, M.; Martín-Escudero, J.C.; Chaves, F.J.; Redondo, M.; Morales-Suarez-Varela, M. Hypertension and the Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D and E. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2793-2809.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top