Next Article in Journal
Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins
Next Article in Special Issue
Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities
Previous Article in Journal
A Spatial, Social and Environmental Study of Tuberculosis in China Using Statistical and GIS Technology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommentary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1449-1465;

The Meanings of Smoking to Women and Their Implications for Cessation

British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health, E311-4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
Academic Editor: Adriana Blanco Marquizo
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 30 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control)
Full-Text   |   PDF [670 KB, uploaded 27 January 2015]


Smoking cigarettes is a gendered activity with sex- and gender-specific uptake trends and cessation patterns. While global male smoking rates have peaked, female rates are set to escalate in the 21st century, especially in low and middle income countries. Hence, smoking cessation for women will be an ongoing issue and requires refreshed attention. Public health and health promotion messages are being challenged to be increasingly tailored, taking gender into account. Women-centred approaches that include harm-reduction, motivational interviewing and trauma-informed elements are the new frontiers in interventions to encourage smoking cessation for women. Such approaches are linked to the meanings of smoking to women, the adaptive function of, and the overall role of smoking cigarettes in the context of women’s lives. These approaches respect gender and sex-related factors that affect smoking and smoking cessation and respond to these issues, not by reinforcing destructive or negative gender norms, but with insight. This article discusses a women-centred approach to smoking cessation that could underpin initiatives in clinical, community or public health settings and could inform campaigns and messaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; women-centred approaches; gender smoking cessation; women-centred approaches; gender
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Greaves, L. The Meanings of Smoking to Women and Their Implications for Cessation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1449-1465.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top