Next Article in Journal
Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks
Next Article in Special Issue
Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings
Previous Article in Journal
Spatial Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Surface Sediment of Taihu Lake
Previous Article in Special Issue
Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings
Open AccessConcept Paper

Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making

1
Division of Environmental Health, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gary Adamkiewicz and M. Patricia Fabian
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15040-15057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121214960
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality: Exposures and Occupant Health)
At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. View Full-Text
Keywords: vapor intrusion; hazardous waste; indoor air quality; environmental decision-making; contaminated sites vapor intrusion; hazardous waste; indoor air quality; environmental decision-making; contaminated sites
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Johnston, J.; MacDonald Gibson, J. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15040-15057.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop