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Open AccessArticle

Proofreading in Young and Older Adults: The Effect of Error Category and Comprehension Difficulty

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14445-14460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114445
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition)
Proofreading text relies on stored knowledge, language processing, and attentional resources. Age differentially affects these constituent abilities: while older adults maintain word knowledge and most aspects of language comprehension, language production and attention capacity are impaired with age. Research with young adults demonstrates that proofreading is more attentionally-demanding for contextual errors which require integration across multiple words compared to noncontextual errors which occur within a single word. Proofreading is also more attentionally-demanding for text which is more difficult to comprehend compared to easier text. Older adults may therefore be impaired at aspects of proofreading which require production, contextual errors, or more difficult text. The current study tested these possibilities using a naturalistic proofreading task. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults proofread noncontextual (spelling) and contextual (grammar or meaning) errors in passages that were easier or more difficult to comprehend. Older adults were preserved at proofreading spelling errors, but were impaired relative to young adults when proofreading grammar or meaning errors, especially for difficult passages. Additionally, older adults were relatively spared at detecting errors compared to correcting spelling errors, in keeping with previous research. Age differences were not attributable to individual differences in vocabulary knowledge or self-reported spelling ability. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; reading; proofreading; error detection; spelling; grammar; verb agreement; semantic errors; semantic illusions; antonyms aging; reading; proofreading; error detection; spelling; grammar; verb agreement; semantic errors; semantic illusions; antonyms
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Shafto, M.A. Proofreading in Young and Older Adults: The Effect of Error Category and Comprehension Difficulty. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14445-14460.

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