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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14285-14300;

Arsenic and Other Metals’ Presence in Biomarkers of Cambodians in Arsenic Contaminated Areas

Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Department of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 Beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ravi Naidu and Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
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Chemical analyses of metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, and Pb) concentrations in hair, nails, and urine of Cambodians in arsenic-contaminated areas who consumed groundwater daily showed elevated levels in these biomarkers for most metals of toxicological interest. The levels of metals in biomarkers corresponded to their levels in groundwater, especially for As, whose concentrations exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water. About 75.6% of hair samples from the population in this study contained As levels higher than the normal level in unexposed individuals (1 mg·kg−1). Most of the population (83.3%) showed As urinary levels exceeding the normal (<50 ng·mg−1). These results indicate the possibility of arsenicosis symptoms in residents of the areas studied. Among the three biomarkers tested, hair has shown to be a reliable indicator of metal exposures. The levels of As (r2 = 0.633), Ba (r2 = 0.646), Fe (r2 = 0.595), and Mo (r2 = 0.555) in hair were strongly positively associated with the levels of those metals in groundwater. In addition, significant weak correlations (p < 0.01) were found between levels of exposure to As and As concentrations in both nails (r2 = 0.544) and urine (r2 = 0.243). View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; hair; nails; urine; biomarker; chronic exposure arsenic; hair; nails; urine; biomarker; chronic exposure

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Chanpiwat, P.; Himeno, S.; Sthiannopkao, S. Arsenic and Other Metals’ Presence in Biomarkers of Cambodians in Arsenic Contaminated Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14285-14300.

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