Next Article in Journal
Effects of OEF/OIF-Related Physical and Emotional Co-Morbidities on Associative Learning: Concurrent Delay and Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning
Previous Article in Journal
From Eutrophic to Mesotrophic: Modelling Watershed Management Scenarios to Change the Trophic Status of a Reservoir
Article

Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland

1
Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Av. Beaumont 21 Bis, Pavillon 2, Lausanne CH-1011, Switzerland
2
Institute for Social Sciences, University of Lausanne, Geopolis Building, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
3
Institute of Psychology, University of Lausanne, Geopolis Building, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
4
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, Zurich CH-8001, Switzerland
5
Addiction Switzerland, Case Postale 870, Lausanne CH-1001, Switzerland
6
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., Toronto ON M5T 1R8, Canada
7
University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3032-3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303032
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
Objective: The present study investigates the use expectations, prevalence and frequency of neuroenhancement drug (ND) use among the Swiss male population, separating college students from others. Methods: Young Swiss men were invited to participate in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. A total of 5,967 participants responded to questions on six types of NDs (wakefulness medication, antidepressants, Alzheimer’s disease medication, Parkinson’s disease medication, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and beta-blockers). The frequency of use depending on five expectations (to enhance wakefulness, attention, memory, concentration and stress reduction) was analyzed for a twelve-month period. Results: (1) About 3% of the sample indicated use of at least one ND; (2) ADHD medication was the most prevalent; (3) The type of ND preferred differed depending on academic status (4). Quantitatively, over the year, college student users used ND much less frequently than other users. Conclusions: Prevalence of ND use is low in Switzerland relative to other countries such as the United States. Patterns of ND use differed depending on academic status, suggesting that while college student ND users tended to do so rarely (probably to enhance cognitive abilities for exams), non-college male users used other NDs more frequently (probably to “get high”). View Full-Text
Keywords: college students; expectations of use; neuroenhancement; prevalence; smart drugs college students; expectations of use; neuroenhancement; prevalence; smart drugs
MDPI and ACS Style

Deline, S.; Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; N'Goran, A.A.; Dupuis, M.; Henchoz, Y.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.-B.; Gmel, G. Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3032-3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303032

AMA Style

Deline S, Baggio S, Studer J, N'Goran AA, Dupuis M, Henchoz Y, Mohler-Kuo M, Daeppen J-B, Gmel G. Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):3032-3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deline, Stéphane, Stéphanie Baggio, Joseph Studer, Alexandra A. N'Goran, Marc Dupuis, Yves Henchoz, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, and Gerhard Gmel. 2014. "Use of Neuroenhancement Drugs: Prevalence, Frequency and Use Expectations in Switzerland" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, no. 3: 3032-3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303032

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop