Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
2. A Conceptualization of Wellbeing Relevant to Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies
2.1. Subjective Wellbeing Measures
2.2. Objective Wellbeing Indices
2.2.1. Sustainability and Environment
2.2.2. Socioeconomic Status
2.2.3. Social Relationships
2.3. Combined Measures
3. Development of the Conceptual Model within Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
3.1. Climate Change Policies in the Conceptual Model
3.2. Objective Wellbeing Effects of GHG Reduction Policies in the Conceptual Model
3.2.1. Building Policies and Objective Wellbeing
3.2.2. Transport Policies and Objective Wellbeing
3.2.3. Industry Policies and Objective Wellbeing
3.3. Subjective Wellbeing Effects of GHG Reduction Policies in the Conceptual Model
3.3.1. Building Policies Implications Subjective Wellbeing (via Housing Conditions)
3.3.2. Transport Policy Implications for Subjective Wellbeing (via Active Transport, Social Capital and Air Pollution)
3.3.3. Industry Policy Implications for Subjective Wellbeing (via Air Pollution and Employment)
4. Quantification of the Theoretical Links between City Conditions and Wellbeing
|Policy Area and Search Number||Search Terms *||Total Papers||Papers Providing Quantitative Assessment of Links|
|1||“((damp/mold/mould) / (thermal comfort/(cold & housing))) & (self-assessed health/mental health/ depression)”||93||9|
|2||“(heat stress/air conditioning) & (wellbeing/ depression/ mental health)”||NA **||1|
|1||“(air pollution/noise) & (mental health/depression)”||54||19|
|2 ***||“(public transport/exercise/physical activity) & (mental health/anxiety/depression)”||568||1 (public transport related)|
|3||“(commut */transport mode/public transport/active transport) & (social capital/community/social network /volunteer */cultur *)”||51||15|
|4||“(accessibility/exclusion) & transport & wellbeing”||NA||7|
|5||“(green/environment/sustainable) & wellbeing”||NA||7|
|6||“(affordability/ frugality) & (wellbeing/depression/mental health)”||NA||5|
|1||“(unemployment/employment/job) & (greenhouse gas)”||49||0|
|Policies||Implications||Objective Wellbeing Aspects Explored||Subjective Wellbeing Aspects Explored||Notes on Potential for Quantification|
|Tightening building envelope & improving insulation||Reduced air flow and reduced heat loss through building envelope||Mould and damp||Depression|
Satisfaction with indoor air quality
|Some evidence of a relationship found [98,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158] but many studies are cross sectional or based in the UK (particularly the West of Scotland where there is a particular concentration of damp housing and disadvantage). Some odds ratios available.|
|Most literature appears to have focused on insufficiently warm housing [152,153,154,155,156,157,158] whereas the combination of global warming and increased ventilation may lead to insufficiently cool housing . Some odds ratios available. Differentiation of the effects of cold and damp is difficult.|
|Tolls & Parking restrictions||Reduce private car use||Air pollution||Depression|
|Fairly consistent findings [160,161,162] and one Canadian research team has provided relative risks [132,163,164,165]. However there are many differences by time of year, type of air pollution and gender. Some relative risks available.|
|Air pollution||Annoyance||ERFs developed for Europe [166,167] but direction of causality could be an issue .|
|Fairly consistent associations [98,118,121,122,168,169,170,171,172,173]. ERFs developed for annoyance and sleep disturbance [174,175]. Again direction of causality could be an issue .|
|Accessibility||Mental health||There is a little, mostly descriptive, research on accessibility and wellbeing mostly from one Australian research team [99,176,177,178,179,180,181] which is suggestive of an association.|
|Biofuels||Leading a green lifestyle||Life satisfaction|
|A consistent relationship found between leading a green lifestyle and wellbeing but studies have tended to use scales rather than dichotomous outcomes so the search did not find any ratios—generalising from the particular scales used is difficult [182,183,184,185].|
|Electric cars||Cars are less affordable||Affordability||Stress|
|Studies on affordability and wellbeing are inconclusive [99,182,183,186,187,188]. Again outcomes tend to be on a continuous scale so ratios were not found.|
|Promotion of public transport||Use of public transport||Mental health||A few qualitative & descriptive studies  or benefits via extra walking |
|Cycle paths and foot paths||More walking and cycling||Social capital:|
informal social networks,
|Studies tend to be cross sectional so difficult to tell the direction of causation [101,140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149]. Odds ratios are available.|
|Physical activity levels||Mental health|
|There is a vast literature in this area (e.g., [101,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199]).|
|Industries encouraged/ discouraged by city||Change in employment due to cc policies e.g., Power generation||Unemployment||Mental health||One European study has looked at climate change policies and unemployment but the results were not presented in a generalizable manner  and other papers are descriptive [200,201,202,203].|
Conflicts of Interest
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© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Hiscock, R.; Mudu, P.; Braubach, M.; Martuzzi, M.; Perez, L.; Sabel, C. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12312-12345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111212312
Hiscock R, Mudu P, Braubach M, Martuzzi M, Perez L, Sabel C. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(12):12312-12345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111212312Chicago/Turabian Style
Hiscock, Rosemary, Pierpaolo Mudu, Matthias Braubach, Marco Martuzzi, Laura Perez, and Clive Sabel. 2014. "Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, no. 12: 12312-12345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111212312