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Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study
Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 333 Longwood Ave., #634, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Clinical Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Abstract: Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.
Keywords: cosmetic surgery; cosmetic procedure; U.V. indoor tanning; small-area estimation; NAICS code
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Austin, S.B.; Gordon, A.R.; Kennedy, G.A.; Sonneville, K.R.; Blossom, J.; Blood, E.A. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6832-6862.
Austin SB, Gordon AR, Kennedy GA, Sonneville KR, Blossom J, Blood EA. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6832-6862.
Austin, S. B.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A. 2013. "Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6832-6862.