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Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model?
Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Av. Beaumont 21 bis, Pavillon 2, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Institute of Social- and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, CH-8001 Zurich, Switzerland
Addiction Switzerland, postale 870, CH-1001 Lausanne, Switzerland
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8, Canada
University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Abstract: The Early Smoking Experience (ESE) questionnaire is the most widely used questionnaire to assess initial subjective experiences of cigarette smoking. However, its factor structure is not clearly defined and can be perceived from two main standpoints: valence, or positive and negative experiences, and sensitivity to nicotine. This article explores the ESE’s factor structure and determines which standpoint was more relevant. It compares two groups of young Swiss men (German- and French-speaking). We examined baseline data on 3,368 tobacco users from a representative sample in the ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ESE, continued tobacco use, weekly smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed. ESEM clearly distinguished positive experiences from negative experiences, but negative experiences were divided in experiences related to dizziness and experiences related to irritations. SEM underlined the reinforcing effects of positive experiences, but also of experiences related to dizziness on nicotine dependence and weekly smoking. The best ESE structure for predictive accuracy of experiences on smoking behavior was a compromise between the valence and sensitivity standpoints, which showed clinical relevance.
Keywords: early smoking experience; factor structure; smoking behavior; tobacco
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MDPI and ACS Style
Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; Deline, S.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.-B.; Gmel, G. Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6305-6318.
Baggio S, Studer J, Deline S, Mohler-Kuo M, Daeppen J-B, Gmel G. Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6305-6318.
Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard. 2013. "Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6305-6318.