Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups
Previous Article in Journal
Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence
Open AccessReview

Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment

1
ICBAS — Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Porto, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal
2
CIIMAR — Interdisciplinary Center for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Porto, 4050-123, Portugal
3
Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4
Multidisciplinary Unit for Biomedical Research (UMIB), University of Porto, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(1), 278-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10010278
Received: 8 November 2012 / Revised: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
The use of antimicrobial agents has been claimed to be the driving force for the emergence and spread of microbial resistance. However, several studies have reported the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in populations exposed to low levels of antimicrobial drugs or even never exposed. For many pathogens, especially those organisms for which asymptomatic colonization typically precedes infection (e.g., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli), the selective effects of antimicrobial use can only be understood if we considerer all biological and environmental pathways which enable these bacteria, and the genes they carry, to spread between different biomes. This ecological framework provides an essential perspective for formulating antimicrobial use policies, precisely because it encompasses the root causes of these problems rather than merely their consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; resistance; humans; animals; environment antimicrobials; resistance; humans; animals; environment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Da Costa, P.M.; Loureiro, L.; Matos, A.J.F. Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 278-294.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop