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Article

Characterization and Biocompatibility Properties In Vitro of Gel Beads Based on the Pectin and κ-Carrageenan

Institute of Physiology of Federal Research Centre “Komi Science Centre of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, 50 Pervomaiskaya Str., 167982 Syktyvkar, Russia
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Academic Editors: Irina M. Yermak and Viktoria Davydova
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020094
Received: 18 December 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 20 January 2022 / Published: 22 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbohydrate-Based Compounds with Medicinal Properties II)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of kappa (κ)-carrageenan on the initial stages of the foreign body response against pectin gel. Pectin-carrageenan (P-Car) gel beads were prepared from the apple pectin and κ-carrageenan using gelling with calcium ions. The inclusion of 0.5% κ-carrageenan (Car0.5) in the 1.5 (P1.5) and 2% pectin (P2) gel formulations decreased the gel strength by 2.5 times. Car0.5 was found to increase the swelling of P2 gel beads in the cell culture medium. P2 gel beads adsorbed 30–42 mg/g of bovine serum albumin (BSA) depending on pH. P2-Car0.2, P2-Car0.5, and P1.5-Car0.5 beads reduced BSA adsorption by 3.1, 5.2, and 4.0 times compared to P2 beads, respectively, at pH 7. The P1.5-Car0.5 beads activated complement and induced the haemolysis less than gel beads of pure pectin. Moreover, P1.5-Car0.5 gel beads allowed less adhesion of mouse peritoneal macrophages, TNF-α production, and NF-κB activation than the pure pectin gel beads. There were no differences in TLR4 and ICAM-1 levels in macrophages treated with P and P-Car gel beads. P2-Car0.5 hydrogel demonstrated lower adhesion to serous membrane than P2 hydrogel. Thus, the data obtained indicate that the inclusion of κ-carrageenan in the apple pectin gel improves its biocompatibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple pectin; κ-carrageenan; gel beads; protein adsorption; complement activation; haemolysis; peritoneal macrophages; TNF-α; NF-κB; TLR4; ICAM-1 apple pectin; κ-carrageenan; gel beads; protein adsorption; complement activation; haemolysis; peritoneal macrophages; TNF-α; NF-κB; TLR4; ICAM-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Popov, S.; Paderin, N.; Khramova, D.; Kvashninova, E.; Melekhin, A.; Vityazev, F. Characterization and Biocompatibility Properties In Vitro of Gel Beads Based on the Pectin and κ-Carrageenan. Mar. Drugs 2022, 20, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020094

AMA Style

Popov S, Paderin N, Khramova D, Kvashninova E, Melekhin A, Vityazev F. Characterization and Biocompatibility Properties In Vitro of Gel Beads Based on the Pectin and κ-Carrageenan. Marine Drugs. 2022; 20(2):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popov, Sergey, Nikita Paderin, Daria Khramova, Elizaveta Kvashninova, Anatoliy Melekhin, and Fedor Vityazev. 2022. "Characterization and Biocompatibility Properties In Vitro of Gel Beads Based on the Pectin and κ-Carrageenan" Marine Drugs 20, no. 2: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020094

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