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Review

Spirulina Microalgae and Brain Health: A Scoping Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence

1
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Maria Paola Belloni Center for Personalized Medicine, Data Medica Group (Synlab Limited), 35100 Padova, Italy
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MedicRiab srls Via Novara, 6, 36071 Arzignano, Italy
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IRCCS SDN, 80143 Napoli, Italy
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Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V. Tiberio”, University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
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Department of Human Welfare, Okinawa International University, Ginowan 901-2701, Japan
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Department of Research, Kuakini Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96817, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Diederich
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060293
Received: 2 May 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
Spirulina microalgae contain a plethora of nutrient and non-nutrient molecules providing brain health benefits. Numerous in vivo evidence has provided support for the brain health potential of spirulina, highlighting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective mechanisms. Preliminary clinical studies have also suggested that spirulina can help to reduce mental fatigue, protect the vascular wall of brain vessels from endothelial damage and regulate internal pressure, thus contributing to the prevention and/or mitigating of cerebrovascular conditions. Furthermore, the use of spirulina in malnourished children appears to ameliorate motor, language, and cognitive skills, suggesting a reinforcing role in developmental mechanisms. Evidence of the central effect of spirulina on appetite regulation has also been shown. This review aims to understand the applicative potential of spirulina microalgae in the prevention and mitigation of brain disorders, highlighting the nutritional value of this “superfood”, and providing the current knowledge on relevant molecular mechanisms in the brain associated with its dietary introduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: spirulina; seaweeds; brain health; BDNF; nutraceuticals spirulina; seaweeds; brain health; BDNF; nutraceuticals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sorrenti, V.; Castagna, D.A.; Fortinguerra, S.; Buriani, A.; Scapagnini, G.; Willcox, D.C. Spirulina Microalgae and Brain Health: A Scoping Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060293

AMA Style

Sorrenti V, Castagna DA, Fortinguerra S, Buriani A, Scapagnini G, Willcox DC. Spirulina Microalgae and Brain Health: A Scoping Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(6):293. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060293

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sorrenti, Vincenzo, Davide A. Castagna, Stefano Fortinguerra, Alessandro Buriani, Giovanni Scapagnini, and Donald C. Willcox. 2021. "Spirulina Microalgae and Brain Health: A Scoping Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence" Marine Drugs 19, no. 6: 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060293

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