(1) Background: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) has been used as a local anesthetic, but its anti-inflammatory effects have not been well defined. In the present study, we investigate the effects of NeoSTX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. (2) Methods: Raw 264.7 and equine PBMC cells were incubated with or without 100 ng/mL LPS in the presence or absence of NeoSTX (1µM). The expression of inflammatory mediators was assessed: nitric oxide (NO) content using the Griess assay, TNF-α content using the ELISA assay, and mRNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. (3) Results: NeoSTX (1 μM) significantly inhibited the release of NO, TNF-α, and expression of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in LPS-activated macrophages of both species studied. Furthermore, our study shows that the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators was suppressed by NeoSTX. Additionally, NeoSTX deactivated polarized macrophages to M1 by LPS without compromising its polarization towards M2. (4) Conclusions: NeoSTX inhibits LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages, and these effects may be mediated by the blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC).
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