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Open AccessArticle

Transfer of the Neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in the Agro–Aqua Cycle

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10654 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 244;
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 6 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure–Activity Relationship of Marine Bioactive Compounds)
The neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is connected to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been shown to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems, and filter-feeding molluscs seem particularly susceptible to BMAA accumulation. The blue mussels farmed along the Swedish coastline in the Baltic Sea are, due to their small size, exclusively used to produce feed for chicken and fish in the agro–aqua cycle. We have investigated the possible biotransfer of BMAA from mussels, via mussel-based feed, into chickens. Chickens were divided into two groups, the control and the treatment. BMAA was extracted from the muscle, liver, brain, and eye tissues in both chicken groups; a UPLC-MS/MS method was subsequently used to quantify BMAA. The results indicate detectable concentrations of BMAA in both chicken groups. However, the BMAA concentration in chicken was 5.65 times higher in the treatment group than the control group, with the highest concentration found in muscle tissue extracted from the treatment group chickens. These data suggest that there is a BMAA transfer route within the agro-aqua cycle, so further investigation is recommended before using mussel-based feed in the chicken industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; Baltic Sea; mussel; chicken; bioaccumulation; agro–aqua cycle β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; Baltic Sea; mussel; chicken; bioaccumulation; agro–aqua cycle
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Kim, S.-Y.; Rydberg, S. Transfer of the Neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in the Agro–Aqua Cycle. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 244.

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