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Article

Lipoxygenase Pathways in Diatoms: Occurrence and Correlation with Grazer Toxicity in Four Benthic Species

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Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, Napoli, Italy
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Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
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Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo “Mauro Picone”, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010066
Received: 14 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 19 January 2020
Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, collectively called oxylipins, are a highly diverse family of lipoxygenase (LOX) products well described in planktonic diatoms. Here we report the first investigation of these molecules in four benthic diatoms, Cylindrotheca closterium, Nanofrustulum shiloi, Cocconeis scutellum, and Diploneis sp. isolated from the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from the Gulf of Naples. Analysis by hyphenated MS techniques revealed that C. closterium, N. shiloi, and C. scutellum produce several polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) and linear oxygenated fatty acids (LOFAs) related to the products of LOX pathways in planktonic species. Diploneis sp. also produced other unidentified fatty acid derivatives that are not related to LOX metabolism. The levels and composition of oxylipins in the benthic species match their negative effects on the reproductive success in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In agreement with this correlation, the most toxic species N. shiloi revealed the same LOX pathways of Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, two bloom-forming planktonic diatoms that affect copepod reproduction. Overall, our data highlight for the first time a major role of oxylipins, namely LOFAs, as info-chemicals for benthic diatoms, and open new perspectives in the study of the structuring of benthic communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical ecology; mass spectrometry; diatoms; oxylipins; lipoxygenase; biosynthesis; fatty acid derivatives chemical ecology; mass spectrometry; diatoms; oxylipins; lipoxygenase; biosynthesis; fatty acid derivatives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruocco, N.; Nuzzo, G.; d’Ippolito, G.; Manzo, E.; Sardo, A.; Ianora, A.; Romano, G.; Iuliano, A.; Zupo, V.; Costantini, M.; Fontana, A. Lipoxygenase Pathways in Diatoms: Occurrence and Correlation with Grazer Toxicity in Four Benthic Species. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010066

AMA Style

Ruocco N, Nuzzo G, d’Ippolito G, Manzo E, Sardo A, Ianora A, Romano G, Iuliano A, Zupo V, Costantini M, Fontana A. Lipoxygenase Pathways in Diatoms: Occurrence and Correlation with Grazer Toxicity in Four Benthic Species. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(1):66. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruocco, Nadia, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Giuliana d’Ippolito, Emiliano Manzo, Angela Sardo, Adrianna Ianora, Giovanna Romano, Antonella Iuliano, Valerio Zupo, Maria Costantini, and Angelo Fontana. 2020. "Lipoxygenase Pathways in Diatoms: Occurrence and Correlation with Grazer Toxicity in Four Benthic Species" Marine Drugs 18, no. 1: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010066

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