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Unique Aggregation of Sterigmatocystin in Water Yields Strong and Specific Circular Dichroism Response Allowing Highly Sensitive and Selective Monitoring of Bio-Relevant Interactions

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Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Microbiology, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička c. 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Chemistry, University of Pisa, via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
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Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52 St., 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110629
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
We demonstrated the hitherto unknown property of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STC) to provide homogeneous solutions in aqueous medium by forming a unique aggregate type (not formed by analogous aflatoxins), characterized by exceptionally strong circular dichroism (CD) bands in the 300–400 nm range. Results showed that these CD bands do not originate from intrinsic STC chirality but are a specific property of a peculiar aggregation process similar to psi-DNA CD response. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments revealed a fine fiber network resembling a supramolecular gel structure with helical fibers. Thermodynamic studies of aggregates by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed high reversibility of the dominant aggregation process. We demonstrated that the novel STC psi-CD band at 345 nm could be applied at biorelevant conditions (100 nanomolar concentration) and even in marine-salt content conditions for specific and quantitative monitoring of STC. Also, we showed that STC strongly non-covalently interacts with ds-DNA with likely toxic effects, thus contrary to the previous belief requiring prior enzyme epoxidation. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxins; Aspergilli; sterigmatocystin monitoring in water; chiral aggregation; non-covalent DNA binding toxins; Aspergilli; sterigmatocystin monitoring in water; chiral aggregation; non-covalent DNA binding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jakšić, D.; Šegvić Klarić, M.; Crnolatac, I.; Šijaković Vujičić, N.; Smrečki, V.; Górecki, M.; Pescitelli, G.; Piantanida, I. Unique Aggregation of Sterigmatocystin in Water Yields Strong and Specific Circular Dichroism Response Allowing Highly Sensitive and Selective Monitoring of Bio-Relevant Interactions. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 629.

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