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Open AccessArticle

Development and Characterization of Astaxanthin-Containing Whey Protein-Based Nanoparticles

1
Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
2
Sphera Encapsulation S.r.l., Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110627
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent)
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a carotenoid of great interest due to its potential health benefits. However, its use in the food, feed, and pharmaceutical fields is limited due to low bioavailability, poor stability during thermochemical treatments, susceptibility to oxidation, and poor organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this work was to develop a method to stabilize astaxanthin extracted from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (H.p.) and to improve its nutritional and functional properties through nanoencapsulation. Nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by emulsification–solvent evaporation technique starting from H.p. oleoresin using whey proteins concentrate (WPC) as stabilizer. The efficiency of encapsulation was 96%. The particle size (Z-average) was in the range of 80–130 nm and the superficial charge (measured as zeta-potential) was negative (−20 to −30 mV). The stability of the NPs upon resuspension in water was assayed through a panel of stress tests, i.e., extreme pH, UV radiation, Fe3+ exposition, and heating at 65 °C, that always showed a superior performance of encapsulated ASX in comparison to oleoresin, even if NPs tended to precipitate at pH 3.5–5.5. Simulated gastroenteric digestion was conducted to study the release of ASX in physiological conditions, and showed a maximum bioaccessibility of 76%, with 75% ASX converted into the more bioavailable free form. The collected data suggest that NPs might have possible future applications as supplements for human and animal diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: encapsulation; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; nanoparticles; bioaccessibility; stability; simulated digestion encapsulation; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; nanoparticles; bioaccessibility; stability; simulated digestion
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Zanoni, F.; Vakarelova, M.; Zoccatelli, G. Development and Characterization of Astaxanthin-Containing Whey Protein-Based Nanoparticles. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 627.

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