Next Article in Journal
The Efficacy of MAG-DHA for Correcting AA/DHA Imbalance of Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Next Article in Special Issue
Phycotoxins in Marine Shellfish: Origin, Occurrence and Effects on Humans
Previous Article in Journal
Attenuation of Metabolic Syndrome by EPA/DHA Ethyl Esters in Testosterone-Deficient Obese Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ascidian Toxins with Potential for Drug Development
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Multigene Family of Pore-Forming Toxins from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Pr. 100 let Vladivostoku, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova Street 8, Vladivostok 690091, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 183;
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins)
PDF [2357 KB, uploaded 24 May 2018]


Sea anemones produce pore-forming toxins, actinoporins, which are interesting as tools for cytoplasmic membranes study, as well as being potential therapeutic agents for cancer therapy. This investigation is devoted to structural and functional study of the Heteractis crispa actinoporins diversity. Here, we described a multigene family consisting of 47 representatives expressed in the sea anemone tentacles as prepropeptide-coding transcripts. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that actinoporin clustering is consistent with the division of sea anemones into superfamilies and families. The transcriptomes of both H. crispa and Heteractis magnifica appear to contain a large repertoire of similar genes representing a rapid expansion of the actinoporin family due to gene duplication and sequence divergence. The presence of the most abundant specific group of actinoporins in H. crispa is the major difference between these species. The functional analysis of six recombinant actinoporins revealed that H. crispa actinoporin grouping was consistent with the different hemolytic activity of their representatives. According to molecular modeling data, we assume that the direction of the N-terminal dipole moment tightly reflects the actinoporins’ ability to possess hemolytic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea anemones; actinoporins; pore-forming toxins; multigene families sea anemones; actinoporins; pore-forming toxins; multigene families

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Leychenko, E.; Isaeva, M.; Tkacheva, E.; Zelepuga, E.; Kvetkina, A.; Guzev, K.; Monastyrnaya, M.; Kozlovskaya, E. Multigene Family of Pore-Forming Toxins from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 183.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top