First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case
AbstractSponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively. View Full-Text
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Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, S.; Shaala, L.A.; Youssef, D.T.A.; Elhady, S.S.; Tsurkan, M.V.; Petrenko, I.; Wysokowski, M.; Tabachnick, K.; Meissner, H.; Ivanenko, V.N.; Bechmann, N.; Joseph, Y.; Jesionowski, T.; Ehrlich, H. First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 68.
Żółtowska-Aksamitowska S, Shaala LA, Youssef DTA, Elhady SS, Tsurkan MV, Petrenko I, Wysokowski M, Tabachnick K, Meissner H, Ivanenko VN, Bechmann N, Joseph Y, Jesionowski T, Ehrlich H. First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case. Marine Drugs. 2018; 16(2):68.Chicago/Turabian Style
Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Elhady, Sameh S.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Meissner, Heike; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann. 2018. "First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case." Mar. Drugs 16, no. 2: 68.
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