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Inhibitory Growth of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer via Bacterial Prodigiosin

Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 10086, Taiwan
Division of Histology and Clinical Pathology, Hualian Army Forces General Hospital, Hualien 97144, Taiwan
Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 10086, Taiwan
Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Marine Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Pingtung 94450, Taiwan
National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 94450, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 224;
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin)
PDF [3465 KB, uploaded 15 July 2017]


Chemotherapy drugs for oral cancers always cause side effects and adverse effects. Currently natural sources and herbs are being searched for treated human oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) in an effort to alleviate the causations of agents in oral cancers chemotherapy. This study investigates the effect of prodigiosin (PG), an alkaloid and natural red pigment as a secondary metabolite of Serratia marcescens, to inhibit human oral squamous carcinoma cell growth; thereby, developing a new drug for the treatment of oral cancer. In vitro cultured human OSCC models (OECM1 and SAS cell lines) were used to test the inhibitory growth of PG via cell cytotoxic effects (MTT assay), cell cycle analysis, and Western blotting. PG under various concentrations and time courses were shown to effectively cause cell death and cell-cycle arrest in OECM1 and SAS cells. Additionally, PG induced autophagic cell death in OECM1 and SAS cells by LC3-mediated P62/LC3-I/LC3-II pathway at the in vitro level. These findings elucidate the role of PG, which may target the autophagic cell death pathways as a potential agent in cancer therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: prodigiosin; marine viva; autophage; oral squamous cell carcinoma prodigiosin; marine viva; autophage; oral squamous cell carcinoma

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cheng, M.-F.; Lin, C.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Sung, P.-J.; Lin, S.-R.; Tong, Y.-W.; Weng, C.-F. Inhibitory Growth of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer via Bacterial Prodigiosin. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 224.

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