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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(12), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15120385

The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s)

1
Department of Experimental Biology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 38 C, 50-630 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Wroclawskie Ctr Badan EIT, Stabłowicka 147 St, 54-066 Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25 St, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland
4
PferdePraxis Dr. Med. Vet. Daniel Weiss, Postmatte 14, CH-8807 Freienbach, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds Used in Biosorption)
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Abstract

This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III) trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) and extracellular microvesicles (MVs) in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR) were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III) induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses. View Full-Text
Keywords: algae extract; Cladophora glomerata; biosorption; trivalent chromium; EMS; ASCs algae extract; Cladophora glomerata; biosorption; trivalent chromium; EMS; ASCs
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Marycz, K.; Michalak, I.; Kocherova, I.; Marędziak, M.; Weiss, C. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s). Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 385.

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