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Open AccessArticle

λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Basic Sciences Department, King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 850 Lincoln Rd., Fredericton, NB E3B 4Z7, Canada
Acadian Seaplants Limited, 30 Brown Avenue, Dartmouth, NS B3B 1X8, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Laurienzo
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2875-2889;
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd); carrageenans; induced resistance tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd); carrageenans; induced resistance
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Sangha, J.S.; Kandasamy, S.; Khan, W.; Bahia, N.S.; Singh, R.P.; Critchley, A.T.; Prithiviraj, B. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2875-2889.

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