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Open AccessArticle

λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

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Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
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Basic Sciences Department, King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia
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Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 850 Lincoln Rd., Fredericton, NB E3B 4Z7, Canada
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Acadian Seaplants Limited, 30 Brown Avenue, Dartmouth, NS B3B 1X8, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Laurienzo
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2875-2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052875
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd); carrageenans; induced resistance tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd); carrageenans; induced resistance
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Sangha, J.S.; Kandasamy, S.; Khan, W.; Bahia, N.S.; Singh, R.P.; Critchley, A.T.; Prithiviraj, B. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2875-2889.

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