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Open AccessArticle

Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum

Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany
Division of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840, Korea
School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea
Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway, H91 R673, Ireland
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48202, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6687-6702;
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
PDF [547 KB, uploaded 9 November 2015]


Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1) and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2) by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1) and (2) were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: shellfish poisoning; lipophilic marine biotoxins; NMR shellfish poisoning; lipophilic marine biotoxins; NMR

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Krock, B.; Tillmann, U.; Potvin, É.; Jeong, H.J.; Drebing, W.; Kilcoyne, J.; Al-Jorani, A.; Twiner, M.J.; Göthel, Q.; Köck, M. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6687-6702.

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