Next Article in Journal
Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga—Competition or Allelopathy?
Next Article in Special Issue
A New Analogue of Echinomycin and a New Cyclic Dipeptide from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. LS298
Previous Article in Journal
Fish Synucleins: An Update
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32
Open AccessArticle

Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum

Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany
Division of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840, Korea
School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea
Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway, H91 R673, Ireland
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48202, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6687-6702;
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1) and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2) by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1) and (2) were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: shellfish poisoning; lipophilic marine biotoxins; NMR shellfish poisoning; lipophilic marine biotoxins; NMR
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Krock, B.; Tillmann, U.; Potvin, É.; Jeong, H.J.; Drebing, W.; Kilcoyne, J.; Al-Jorani, A.; Twiner, M.J.; Göthel, Q.; Köck, M. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6687-6702.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop