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Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health
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Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

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Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P-4050-123 Porto, Portugal
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Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P-4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, no. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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FCUP—Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, P-4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Departament of Chemical Engineering, University of Porto, Roberto Frias, s/n, P-4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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LEPABE—Laboratory of Engineering of Environmental, Biotechnology and Energy Process, Roberto Frias, s/n, P-4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6453-6471; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13106453
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2- and NO-). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2-, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in NO- assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid; PUFA; extract; microalga; cyanobacteria; ABTS+•; DPPH; superoxide (O2•−) assay; nitric oxide (NO-) assay carotenoid; PUFA; extract; microalga; cyanobacteria; ABTS+•; DPPH; superoxide (O2•−) assay; nitric oxide (NO-) assay
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Amaro, H.M.; Fernandes, F.; Valentão, P.; Andrade, P.B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F.X.; Guedes, A.C. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6453-6471.

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