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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5277-5294;

Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

Plants for Human Health Institute, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
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Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alaska; seaweed; diabetes; glucosidase; hyperglycemia; amylase; type 2 diabetes mellitus; phlorotannin; polyphenol; ethnopharmacology Alaska; seaweed; diabetes; glucosidase; hyperglycemia; amylase; type 2 diabetes mellitus; phlorotannin; polyphenol; ethnopharmacology

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kellogg, J.; Grace, M.H.; Lila, M.A. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 5277-5294.

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