Next Article in Journal
Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFRβ Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Next Article in Special Issue
The Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli: Structure, Organization and Regulated Assembly of the Lpt Machinery
Previous Article in Journal
Sarcophyolides B–E, New Cembranoids from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton elegans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structural and Immunochemical Studies of the Lipopolysaccharide from the Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas bestiarum Strain K296, Serotype O18
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3197-3208;
Received: 30 June 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and different levels of cytokines were induced. Compared with wild type hexa-acylated LPS, penta-acylated, tetra-acylated and tri-acylated LPS induced lower levels of cytokines. These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. The results would be useful for redesigning the bacterial membrane structure and for developing lipid A vaccine adjuvant. View Full-Text
Keywords: endotoxin; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; TLR4/MD2; membrane permeability; PagL endotoxin; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; TLR4/MD2; membrane permeability; PagL
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Ernst, R.K.; Wang, X. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3197-3208.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop