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Review

Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

1
Department of Pharmacology, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, 555 31st Street, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, USA
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
4
Fisheries and Oceans Hakodate, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dedicated to the memory of Ernesto Fattorusso, a pioneer in marine natural products chemistry.
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2510-2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11072510
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug; marine; chemical; metabolite; natural; product; pharmacology; pharmaceutical; review; toxicology drug; marine; chemical; metabolite; natural; product; pharmacology; pharmaceutical; review; toxicology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mayer, A.M.S.; Rodríguez, A.D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, O.; Fusetani, N. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2510-2573. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11072510

AMA Style

Mayer AMS, Rodríguez AD, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Fusetani N. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(7):2510-2573. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11072510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro. 2013. "Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action" Mar. Drugs 11, no. 7: 2510-2573. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11072510

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