Next Article in Journal
Functional Consequences of Mutations and Polymorphisms in the Coding Region of the PAF Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) Gene
Next Article in Special Issue
Aliskiren: Just a New Drug for Few Selected Patients or an Innovative Molecule Predestinated to Replace Arbs and Ace-Inhibitors?
Previous Article in Journal
A New Classification of Prodrugs: Regulatory Perspectives
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hypertensive Emergency in Aortic Dissection and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm—A Review of Management
Open AccessArticle

Obsessive-Compulsive and Post Traumatic Avoidance Symptoms Influence the Response to Antihypertensive Therapy: Relevance in Uncontrolled Hypertension

1
Clinica Medica 4, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Policlinico Universitario, Via Giustiniani 2 35128 Padova, Italy
2
Psychiatric Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Policlinico Universitario, Via Giustiniani 2 35128 Padova, Italy
3
Division of General Medicine, SS. Giovanni e Paolo Hospital, Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Castello 6777–30122 Venezia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2(3), 82-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph2030082
Received: 22 September 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 16 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Aim: To investigate the association of uncontrolled hypertension with psychological factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (type D personality, depression, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms). Methods: 205 consecutive outpatient hypertensives completed three questionnaires evaluating Type D personality (DS 16), post traumatic symptoms (revised Impact of Events Scale), symptoms of anxiety, hostility, depression and obsessive-compulsive traits (subscales of the Symptom Checklist). Uncontrolled hypertension was diagnosed when clinic sitting blood pressure was above 140/90 mmHg (130/80 in the presence of diabetes or nephropathy), despite reported adherence to treatment with at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Results: Uncontrolled hypertension (39%), was predicted by lower scores at Symptom Checklist obsessive-compulsive subscale and higher number of post traumatic avoidance symptoms, older age, diabetes, higher systolic pressure at first visit and longstanding hypertension. Type D personality correlated with depression, hostility, anxiety, compulsiveness, history of malignancy, and older age, but not with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions: Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with low obsessionality and avoidance symptoms, which reduce compliance to treatment. On the contrary, type D personality is not correlated with uncontrolled hypertension, as it includes compulsiveness, which improves compliance. A multidisciplinary approach to the hypertensive patient is mandatory to establish if the psychological profile affects compliance. View Full-Text
Keywords: avoidance symptoms; compliance; obsessive-compulsive symptoms; uncontrolled hypertension; type D personality avoidance symptoms; compliance; obsessive-compulsive symptoms; uncontrolled hypertension; type D personality
MDPI and ACS Style

Realdi, A.; Favaro, A.; Santonastaso, P.; Nuti, M.; Parotto, E.; Inverso, G.; Leoni, M.; Macchini, L.; Vettore, F.; Calo, L.; Semplicini, A. Obsessive-Compulsive and Post Traumatic Avoidance Symptoms Influence the Response to Antihypertensive Therapy: Relevance in Uncontrolled Hypertension. Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2, 82-93.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop