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Article

Availability of Guanitoxin in Water Samples Containing Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae Cells Submitted to Dissolution Tests

1
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Butantã CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Butantã CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Centre of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário, 303, Piracicaba CEP 13416-000, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110402
Received: 8 October 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
Guanitoxin (GNT) is a potent neurotoxin produced by freshwater cyanobacteria that can cause the deaths of wild and domestic animals. Through reports of animal intoxication by cyanobacteria cells that produce GNT, this study aimed to investigate the bio-accessibility of GNT in simulated solutions of the gastrointestinal content in order to understand the process of toxicosis promoted by GNT in vivo. Dissolution tests were conducted with a mixture of Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae (Cyanobacteria; Nostocales) cultures (30%) and gastrointestinal solutions with and without proteolytic enzymes (70%) at a temperature of 37 °C and rotation at 100 rpm for 2 h. The identification of GNT was performed by LC-QqQ-MS/MS through the transitions [M + H]+m/z 253 > 58 and [M + H]+m/z 253 > 159, which showed high concentrations of GNT in simulated gastric fluid solutions (p-value < 0.001) in comparison to simulated solutions of intestinal content. The gastric solution with pepsin promoted the stability of GNT (p-value < 0.05) compared to the simulated solution of gastric fluid at the same pH without the enzyme. However, the results showed that GNT is also available in intestinal fluids for a period of 2 h, and solutions containing the pancreatin enzyme influenced the bio-accessibility of the toxin more compared to the intestinal medium without enzyme (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, the bio-accessibility of the toxin must be considered both in the stomach and in the intestine, and may help in the diagnosis and prediction of exposure and risk in vivo through the oral ingestion of GNT-producing cyanobacteria cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: anatoxin-a(s); neurotoxins; cyanobacteria poisoning; bio-accessibility anatoxin-a(s); neurotoxins; cyanobacteria poisoning; bio-accessibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, K.A.; Ferraz, H.G.; Vereau, F.; Pinto, E. Availability of Guanitoxin in Water Samples Containing Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae Cells Submitted to Dissolution Tests. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110402

AMA Style

Fernandes KA, Ferraz HG, Vereau F, Pinto E. Availability of Guanitoxin in Water Samples Containing Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae Cells Submitted to Dissolution Tests. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(11):402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Kelly Afonsina, Humberto Gomes Ferraz, Fanny Vereau, and Ernani Pinto. 2020. "Availability of Guanitoxin in Water Samples Containing Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae Cells Submitted to Dissolution Tests" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 11: 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110402

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