# Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Detection Principle

_{S}is the absolute temperature of the surface and T

_{A}is the absolute temperature of ambience.

_{c}is the coefficient of heat transferred by convection.

_{sk}is saturated pressure component of the water vapour in the air on the skin's surface and p

_{a}is partial pressure of ambient water vapour.

_{hbo}

_{2}and C

_{hb}are concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin and haemoglobin respectively, k

_{1}

_{hb}and k

_{2}

_{hb}are extinction coefficients of haemoglobin to two kinds of light with different wavelengths, k

_{1}

_{hbo}

_{2}and k

_{2}

_{hbo}

_{2}are extinction coefficients of oxyhaemoglobin to two kinds of light with different wavelengths and ΔA

_{1}and ΔA

_{2}are the intensities of two kinds of light with different wavelengths absorbed by arterial blood.

## 3. Principle and Simulation of Blood Flow Rate Measurement by Use of Thermal Diffusion

_{2}is the skin temperature, T

_{1}is the blood initial temperature, c

_{1}is the heat capacity of the blood, ρ

_{1}is the density of the blood and v

_{1}is the flow rate of the blood.

_{3}(0) is the temperature of the conductor at the contact point and u

_{2}is the heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the conductor.

_{3+}is the quantity of heat transmitted from any point in the conductor to the positive x axis, dw

_{3-}is the quantity of heat transmitted from any point in the conductor to the negative x axis, T′

_{3+}is the right-hand derivative of the temperature, T′

_{3-}is the left-hand derivative of the temperature, u

_{1}is the coefficient of heat conduction of the conductor and s is the cross-sectional area of the conductor.

_{2}is the equivalent mass of the finger skin and c

_{2}is the equivalent heat capacity of the finger skin.

_{3}is the density of the conductor and c

_{3}is the heat capacity of the conductor.

_{x}(t) is the temperature at any point of the conductor, T

_{s}is the initial of the skin and T

_{c}is the initial temperature of the conductor.

_{b1}and ν

_{b2}, ν

_{b1}< ν

_{b2}, are shown in Fig. 2. Lines 1 and 3 are the curve at the contact point and the curve at the other end at ν

_{b2}. Lines 2 and 4 are the curve at the contact point and the curve at the other end at ν

_{b1}. It can be concluded from the figure that when the blood flow rate is larger, the rate of normalized temperature rise is larger.

## 4. System Composition

## 5. Data Processing

_{i}in (16) can be determined by the method of partial least square regression [10]. In measurement, the glucose level can be estimated by the normalizing of the original data acquired and then by analysis with least square analysis.

## 6. Experiment and Discussion

#### 6.1. Experiment: Blood Flow Rate Based on Heat Diffusion

#### 6.2. Experiment: Non-invasive Glucose Measurement System

## 7. Conclusion

## References and Notes

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© 2008 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CreativeCommons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Tang, F.; Wang, X.; Wang, D.; Li, J.
Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method. *Sensors* **2008**, *8*, 3335-3344.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s8053335

**AMA Style**

Tang F, Wang X, Wang D, Li J.
Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method. *Sensors*. 2008; 8(5):3335-3344.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s8053335

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Tang, Fei, Xiaohao Wang, Dongsheng Wang, and Junfeng Li.
2008. "Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method" *Sensors* 8, no. 5: 3335-3344.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s8053335