Next Article in Journal
Digitally-Compensated Wideband 60 GHz Test-Bed for Power Amplifier Predistortion Experiments
Next Article in Special Issue
Learning Subject-Generalized Topographical EEG Embeddings Using Deep Variational Autoencoders and Domain-Adversarial Regularization
Previous Article in Journal
An Asynchronous Real-Time Corner Extraction and Tracking Algorithm for Event Camera
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Phonography-Based Measurement for Fetal Breathing Movement in the Third Trimester
Open AccessCommunication

Cortical Effects of Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

1
Menrva Research Group, Schools of Mechatronic Systems and Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, 250-13450 102nd Avenue, Surrey, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
2
Sensorimotor Neuroscience Lab, Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
3
Biomedical and Mobile Health Technology Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Sacchetti
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041476
Received: 9 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurophysiological Monitoring)
Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve different motor, sensory, and cognitive behaviors. However, it is unclear how this stimulation affects brain activity to facilitate these improvements. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is inexpensive, portable, and less prone to motion artifacts than other neuroimaging technology. Thus, fNIRS has the potential to provide insight into how nGVS affects cortical activity during a variety of natural behaviors. Here we sought to: (1) determine if fNIRS can detect cortical changes in oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin with application of subthreshold nGVS, and (2) determine how subthreshold nGVS affects this fNIRS-derived hemodynamic response. A total of twelve healthy participants received nGVS and sham stimulation during a seated, resting-state paradigm. To determine whether nGVS altered activity in select cortical regions of interest (BA40, BA39), we compared differences between nGVS and sham HbO and HbR concentrations. We found a greater HbR response during nGVS compared to sham stimulation in left BA40, a region previously associated with vestibular processing, and with all left hemisphere channels combined (p < 0.05). We did not detect differences in HbO responses for any region during nGVS (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that fNIRS may be suitable for understanding the cortical effects of nGVS. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional near-infrared spectroscopy; noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation; non-invasive brain stimulation; stochastic stimulation functional near-infrared spectroscopy; noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation; non-invasive brain stimulation; stochastic stimulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Valdés, B.A.; Lajoie, K.; Marigold, D.S.; Menon, C. Cortical Effects of Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Sensors 2021, 21, 1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041476

AMA Style

Valdés BA, Lajoie K, Marigold DS, Menon C. Cortical Effects of Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041476

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valdés, Bulmaro A.; Lajoie, Kim; Marigold, Daniel S.; Menon, Carlo. 2021. "Cortical Effects of Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041476

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop