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Article

The Reliability and Validity of Wearable Inertial Sensors Coupled with the Microsoft Kinect to Measure Shoulder Range-of-Motion

1
Department of Physiotherapy, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
2
Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
3
Surgical & Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2301, Australia
4
Vald Performance, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7238; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247238
Received: 14 October 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 17 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems for Rehabilitation)
Background: Objective assessment of shoulder joint active range of motion (AROM) is critical to monitor patient progress after conservative or surgical intervention. Advancements in miniature devices have led researchers to validate inertial sensors to capture human movement. This study investigated the construct validity as well as intra- and inter-rater reliability of active shoulder mobility measurements using a coupled system of inertial sensors and the Microsoft Kinect (HumanTrak). Methods: 50 healthy participants with no history of shoulder pathology were tested bilaterally for fixed and free ROM: (1) shoulder flexion, and (2) abduction using HumanTrak and goniometry. The repeat testing of the standardised protocol was completed after seven days by two physiotherapists. Results: All HumanTrak shoulder movements demonstrated adequate reliability (intra-class correlation (ICC) ≥ 0.70). HumanTrak demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability (ICCs: 0.93 and 0.85) than goniometry (ICCs: 0.75 and 0.53) for measuring free shoulder flexion and abduction AROM, respectively. Similarly, HumanTrak demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability (ICCs: 0.81 and 0.94) than goniometry (ICCs: 0.70 and 0.93) for fixed flexion and abduction AROM, respectively. Construct validity between HumanTrak and goniometry was adequate except for free abduction. The differences between raters were predominately acceptable and below ±10°. Conclusions: These results indicated that the HumanTrak system is an objective, valid and reliable way to assess and track shoulder ROM. View Full-Text
Keywords: shoulder; range of motion; sensor; Kinect; goniometry; measurement shoulder; range of motion; sensor; Kinect; goniometry; measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beshara, P.; Chen, J.F.; Read, A.C.; Lagadec, P.; Wang, T.; Walsh, W.R. The Reliability and Validity of Wearable Inertial Sensors Coupled with the Microsoft Kinect to Measure Shoulder Range-of-Motion. Sensors 2020, 20, 7238. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247238

AMA Style

Beshara P, Chen JF, Read AC, Lagadec P, Wang T, Walsh WR. The Reliability and Validity of Wearable Inertial Sensors Coupled with the Microsoft Kinect to Measure Shoulder Range-of-Motion. Sensors. 2020; 20(24):7238. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247238

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beshara, Peter, Judy F. Chen, Andrew C. Read, Pierre Lagadec, Tian Wang, and William Robert Walsh. 2020. "The Reliability and Validity of Wearable Inertial Sensors Coupled with the Microsoft Kinect to Measure Shoulder Range-of-Motion" Sensors 20, no. 24: 7238. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247238

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