A Gesture Elicitation Study of Nose-Based Gestures
- Dual task interaction: a primary task is ongoing (e.g., a conversation during a meeting) and a secondary task (e.g., a phone call) occurs, potentially interrupting the primary one, and requires some discreet interaction to minimize interference with the primary task. For example, a Rubbing gesture discreetly ignores a phone call without disturbing the conversation too much. This is inspired by the dual task performance, a test for assessing the cognitive workload in psychology 
- Eyes-free and/or touch-free interaction : a task should be carried out by interacting with a system without requiring any visual attention and physical touch. Gestures are discreetly performed on the face, an always-accessible area in principle.
- A gesture elicitation study conducted with two groups of participants, one composed of 12 females and another one with 12 males, to determine their user-defined, preferred nose-based gestures, as detected by a sensor , for executing Internet-of-Things (IoT) actions.
- Based on criteria for classifying the elicited gestures, a taxonomy of gestures and a consensus set of final gestures are formed based on agreement scores and rates computed for all actions.
- A set of design guidelines which provide researchers and practitioners with some guidance on how to design a user interface exploiting nose-based gestures.
- An inferential statistical analysis testing the gender effect on preferred gestures.
2. Related Work
3.3.1. Pre-Test Phase
3.3.2. Test Phase
3.3.3. Post-Test Phase
3.5. Quantitative and Qualitative Measures
- Participants’ Creativity was evaluated using an online creativity instrument. The test returns a result between the values 0 and 100 where higher scores denote more creativity. The results are calculated from a set of responses grouped into categories: (1) abstraction of concepts from the presentation of ideas; (2) connection between things/elements or objects without an apparent link; (3) perspective shift in terms of space, time, and other people; (4) curiosity to change and improve things/elements and situations accepted as the norm; (5) boldness to push boundaries beyond the normally accepted conventions; (6) paradox the ability to accept and work with concepts that are contradictory; (7) complexity the ability to operate with a large amount of information; and (8) persistence to derive stronger solutions even when good ones exist.
- Participants’ fine motor skills was measured with a standard motor test of the NEPSY (a developmental NEuroPSYchological assessment) test batteries . The test consists of touching each fingertip with the thumb of the same hand for eight times in a row. Higher motor skills are reflected in less time to perform this task.
- Thinking-Time measures the time, in seconds, elapsed to elicit any gesture for a referent.
- Goodness-of-Fit represents participants’ subjective assessment, as a rating between 1 and 10, of their confidence about how well the proposed gestures fit the referents. Participants could elicit their two gestures in any order with a different Goodness-of-Fit.
4. Results and Discussion
- Dimension: the cardinality of the gesture space: 0D (point), 1D (line), 2D (plane), 3D (space).
- Laterality: which side(s) have been used to issue the gesture, unilateral (when a gesture is elicited only on one side of the dorsum nasi) or central (if the gesture is issued on the edge).
- Gesture motion: which is the intensity of the movement stroke (as a snap or a hit), static (if performed on a single location) or dynamic (if the speed or movement is changing over time).
- Nature: describes the meaning of a gesture with four values adapted from : symbolic gestures depict commonly accepted symbols conveying information, such as emblems and cultural gestures, e.g., the Call me gesture performed with the thumb and little finger stretched out, or swiping the index finger from left to right; metaphorical gestures give shape to an idea or concept, such as using the thumb to press a button on an imaginary remote control to turn on/off the TV set; abstract gestures have no symbolic or metaphorical connections to their referents; physical gestures refer to the real world physics.
- Number of fingers: how many fingers were involved.
- Finger type: type of finger involved in the elicited gesture.
- Path type: direct, flexible, without any particular path.
- Movement axis: stationary, horizontal, vertical, or composed.
- Area: above the nose, under the nose, left part of the dorsum nasi, right part, center, multiple areas.
4.1. Gesture Classification
- Tap: tap any side of the dorsum nasi with the back or the top of one or several fingers with one hand (1.0), on the center (1.1), with two hands on both sides of the nose (1.2), repeated center tap (1.3), right tap (1.5), left tap (1.6).
- Double tap: tap two times on the center (2.1), both sides of the nose (2.2), right (2.5), left (2.6), above the nose (2.7).
- Triple tap: tap three times in a row on the center (3.1), right (3.5), left (3.6), above (3.7).
- Flicking: from right to left (4.5), from left to right (4.6), from the top of the dorsum nasi to the bottom (4.7).
- Pushing: center push (5.1), right push (5.5), left push (5.6).
- Rubbing: rub once on right/left side (6.5/6.6), above the nose (6.7), continuous rub on the right/left (8.8/8.9).
- Double rubbing: repeat rubbing two times in a row.
- Triple rubbing: repeat rubbing three times in a row.
- Drag: stays pressed from the initial point to the final one with the right (9.1) or left hand (9.2), from bottom to top (9.3) or vice versa (9.4), from right to left (9.5) or inverse (9.6).
- Double drag: on the right (10.5), on the left (10.6), from bottom to top (10.7), from top to bottom (10.8).
- Triple drag: drag repeated three times in a row.
- Quadruple drag: drag repeated four times in a row.
- Pinch: when two fingers come far from each other.
- Double pinch: when two fingers come far, close to each other.
- Circle: draw a circle on a facet.
- Double flicking: rapid unilinear movement repeated twice.
- Hold nostrils open: as defined.
- Push nose up: push on the nose with a finger up
- Wrinkle: pulling up the nose without hands.
- Double wrinkle: repeat the wrinkle two times.
- Pull on nose: pull the nose with a finger.
- Finger in nose: in the right/left nostril (22.5/22.6).
- Sniffing: right part (23.5), left part (23.6).
4.2. Agreement Scores and Co-Agreement Rates
4.3. Further Analysis and Gender Effect
4.3.2. Type and Dimension
4.3.4. Pairs of Commands
4.3.5. User Satisfaction with Nose Interaction
4.3.6. Nose-Based Gesture Recognition
5. Design Guidelines
- Match the gesture dimension to task dimension. Used referents cover 0D and 1D tasks. Participants prefer gestures whose dimension is consistent with the task dimension, such as tap for activate/deactivate, tap to select, swipe to scroll. pinch and reverse pinch to shrink or enlarge an object. There is no need to add any extra dimension to the task dimension.
- Prefer gestures with low dimension. From all elicited gestures, the amount of preferred gestures dramatically decreases with their dimension to the point that probably only 0D and 1D gestures are required as the minimum. Higher dimension gestures were always coming afterwards.
- Prefer larger areas over small ones. Larger areas (e.g., the dorsum nasi) are adequate for 1D gestures such as scrolling, swiping gestures while small areas (e.g., the ala, the apex or the philtrum) are available for 0D gestures.
- Favor repetition as a pattern over location. When a gesture is repeated, the repetition factor replaces the fine-grained distinction between individual gestures belonging to the same category. Participants tend to rely less frequently on the physical areas, such as changing the face of the dorsum nasi or preferring the apex.
- Favor centrality instead of laterality. Gestures that are independent of any laterality are easier to produce and remember than asymmetric ones. For instance, swiping on the dorsum nasi is easier than on any face.
- Use location only as a last factor. Location could distinguish between gestures, but only as the last refining factor.
6. Other Measures for Elicited Gestures
7. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
|GES||Gesture Elicitation Study|
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|Variable||Gender||Mean||Standard Deviation||Standard Error M.|
|Creativity||Age||Unlogic Items||Familiarity||Think Time|
|Creativity||Pearson c.||1||0.080||0.117||0.410 *||0.071|
|Unlogic items||Pearson c.||0.117||0.065||1||−0.321||−0.215|
|Familiarity||Pearson c.||0.410 *||−0.307||−0.321||1||−0.302|
|Thinking time||Pearson c.||0.071||0.259||0.215||−0.302||1|
|Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances||t-Test for Equality of Means|
|F||Sig.||t||df||Sig. (2-Tailed)||Mean Difference||Std. Error Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|Creativity||Equal variances assumed||0.577||0.456||1.767||22||0.091||6.67825||3.77911||−1.15914||14.51564|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.809||21.775||0.084||6.67825||3.69096||−0.98092||14.33742|
|Unlogic items||Equal variances assumed||0.534||0.473||1.524||22||0.142||1.287||0.844||−0.465||3.038|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.512||20.597||0.146||1.287||0.851||−0.485||3.058|
|Familiarity device||Equal variances assumed||0.207||0.654||0.660||22||0.516||0.2462||0.3732||−0.5277||1.0200|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.680||21.250||0.504||0.2462||0.3619||−0.5058||0.9981|
|Thinking time||Equal variances assumed||3.577||0.072||0.315||22||0.756||0.51483||1.63311||−2.87205||3.90170|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.304||16.590||0.765||0.51483||1.69274||−3.06329||4.09294|
|Age||Equal variances assumed||2.099||0.161||0.217||22||0.831||1.126||5.198||−9.655||11.907|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.224||21.086||0.825||1.126||5.033||−9.338||11.589|
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Pérez-Medina, J.-L.; Villarreal, S.; Vanderdonckt, J. A Gesture Elicitation Study of Nose-Based Gestures. Sensors 2020, 20, 7118. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247118
Pérez-Medina J-L, Villarreal S, Vanderdonckt J. A Gesture Elicitation Study of Nose-Based Gestures. Sensors. 2020; 20(24):7118. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247118Chicago/Turabian Style
Pérez-Medina, Jorge-Luis, Santiago Villarreal, and Jean Vanderdonckt. 2020. "A Gesture Elicitation Study of Nose-Based Gestures" Sensors 20, no. 24: 7118. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247118