JMAC Protocol: A Cross-Layer Multi-Hop Protocol for LoRa
- Narrowband/Wideband: it can operate in the same way both narrowband and wideband configurations because bandwidth and central frequency are scalable and easy to adapt to any application requirement.
- Constant Envelope: the information of the signal lies in frequency variation and it is independent of the amplitude. Then, the low-power high-efficient power amplifier can operate at saturation level or near it.
- High Robustness: symbols are very long compared to bandwidth, which provides outstanding immunity to adjacent-channel interference.
- Pseudo-orthogonality: it might be one of the most relevant and interesting topics in LoRa. Spreading factors () have an effect that allows transmitting/receiving correctly multiple signals in the channel at the same time, as long as they use different . This feature may be expanded to some combinations of overlapping channels as long as the power difference between them is high enough to consider the interference as noise, as it is shown in .
- Multipath/Fading Immunity: chirp pulses are relatively long time duration, therefore they are resistant against multipath and fading of the signal.
- Doppler Resistant: mobile communications are correctly supported by LoRa, since the Doppler effect only generates a small and negligible frequency shift in the pulse which does not require very accurate clock sources.
- Localization: LoRa is suitable for ranging transmitter location due to the ability to discriminate between frequency and time errors which may be produced by multi-path effects, similar to radar applications.
3. Related Work
3.1. LoRa Multi-Hop
3.2. LoRaWAN Multi-Hop
3.3. Multi-Hop WSN
4. JMAC: A New Protocol
4.1. Devices Operation
4.2. Frame Format
4.3. Time Period
5.1. FLoRaPHY: A New LoRa Framework for OMNeT++
- LoRaTransmitter: it extends FlatTransmitterBase and is in charge of creating the transmissions.
- LoRaReceiver: it inherits from FlatReceiverBase and is responsible for computing whether signal decoding is possible according to the sensitivity of the transceiver and channel interference. It may discard the reception if it collides with interference signals as discussed above.
- IsotropicAntenna: it describes an ideal isotropic antenna, i.e., it radiates the same signal intensity in all directions.
- LoRaStateBasedEpEnergyConsumer: it records the power consumption of the radio module according to its state.
- LoRaAnalogModel: it models how a radio signal arrives to destination, specifically, it computes the final reception, RSSI and SNIR.
- LoRaPathLossOulu: it calculates the path loss of the radio signal inspired in the path loss model of the city of Oulu , but variability was reduced to simplify simulations.
- ConstantSpeedPropagation: it is used to emulate the propagation delay time of transmissions in accordance of traveled distance.
- IsotropicScalarBackgroundNoise: it adds uniform noise to the medium.
- Packet delivery Ratio (PDR): it is the percentage of successfully received UP_DATA frames, i.e., UP_DATA frames which have received the corresponding ACK frame, over the total sent. It is local to the JMacSensor node and it usually converge if the system is static.
- End-to-end delay: it is the time taken for an application packet to arrive to the JMacGateway. It depends on the load of the path to the gateway, so it is a random variable which may be identified. If the system is congested it will grow infinitely because packets will never arrive to destination.
- Throughput: it is the ratio between the payload length of the application packet M and the end-to-end delay. It estimates the effective data rate which can be achieved by a sensor.
5.2. Testbed1: Checking the Impact of Parameters
- Sensors 1 and 2 achieve similar results, but even when C is higher than one the PDR is not 100 % because the gateway does not have a specific receiving window and it may happen that UP_DATA messages interfere with BEACON or ACK frames from the gateway, but still performance is really good.
- Sensor 4 performs worse than sensors 3 and 5 because both parents (sensors 1 and 2) are shared with the other sensors, and there are more probability to interfere.
- Sensor 6 has better PDR compared to sensors 7 and 8 because it has his own parent (sensor 4), apart from the shared one (sensor 5).
- The PDR in sensor 10 is quite better than its sibling sensor 9 because it benefits from two parents simultaneously.
5.3. Testbed2: Checking the Scalability and Performance
7. Conclusions and Further Work
Conflicts of Interest
|LPWA||Low-Power Wide-Area||IoT||Internet of Things|
|LPWAN||Low-Power Wide-Area Network||WSN||Wireless sensor network|
|CT||Concurrent Transmission||CSS||Chirp Spread Spectrum|
|FSK||Frequency Shift Keying||ADR||Adaptative Data Rate|
|AES||Advanced Encryption Standard||ABP||Activation By Personalization|
|OTAA||Over-The-Air Activation||TTN||The Things Network|
|TTI||The Things Industries||MAC||Medium Access Control|
|CRC||Cyclic Redundancy Check||RF||Radio frequency|
|NwkSKey||Network Session Key||AppSKey||Application Session Key|
|AppKey||Application Key||DevAddr||Device Address|
|EUI||Extended Unique Identifier||OTA||Over-The-Air|
|NS||Network Server||JS||Join Server|
|AS||Application Server||TDMA||Time-Division Multiple Access|
|CR||Coding Rate||RDC||Radio Duty Cycling|
|TSCH||Time Slotted Channel Hopping||SF||Spreading Factor|
|PHY||Physical Layer||OS||Operating System|
|DTN||Delay-Tolerant Networking||API||Application Programming Interface|
|DSDV||Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector||HWMP||Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol|
|SRD||Short Range Devices||UNB||Ultra Narrow Band|
|LTE||Long-Term Evolution||ToA||Time On Air|
|RSSI||Received Signal Strength Indicator||SNR||Signal-To-Noise Ratio|
|SNIR||Signal-To-Noise-Plus-Interference Ratio||PDR||Packet Delivery Ratio|
|RTS||Request To Send||CTS||Clear To Send|
|CSMA||Carrier-Sense Multiple Access||CCA||Clear Channel Assesement|
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|||Preamble Sampling and|
|||Sleep-Awake Pattern and|
|44.032 s.||81.9968 s.||119.9104 s.|
|25.1264 s.||44.0832 s.||63.0400 s.|
|18.8075 s.||31.4453 s.||44.0832 s.|
|15.6480 s.||25.1264 s.||34.6048 s.|
|40.4992 s.||75.3508 s.||110.1824 s.|
|23.0784 s.||40.4992 s.||57.9200 s.|
|17.2715 s.||28.8853 s.||40.4992 s.|
|14.3680 s.||23.0784 s.||31.7888 s.|
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López Escobar, J.J.; Gil-Castiñeira, F.; Díaz Redondo, R.P. JMAC Protocol: A Cross-Layer Multi-Hop Protocol for LoRa. Sensors 2020, 20, 6893. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236893
López Escobar JJ, Gil-Castiñeira F, Díaz Redondo RP. JMAC Protocol: A Cross-Layer Multi-Hop Protocol for LoRa. Sensors. 2020; 20(23):6893. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236893Chicago/Turabian Style
López Escobar, Juan José, Felipe Gil-Castiñeira, and Rebeca P. Díaz Redondo. 2020. "JMAC Protocol: A Cross-Layer Multi-Hop Protocol for LoRa" Sensors 20, no. 23: 6893. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236893