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Impact of Acoustic and Interactive Disruptive Factors during Robot-Assisted Surgery—A Virtual Surgical Training Model

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3 (House C), 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3 (House C), 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str.3 (House D), 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of General, Visceral, Thoracic, Transplant, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3 (House C), 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Trauma Surgery and Orthopedics, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3 (House C), 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 (House A), 23538 Lübeck, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205891
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assistance Robotics and Sensors)
The use of virtual reality trainers for teaching minimally invasive surgical techniques has been established for a long time in conventional laparoscopy as well as robotic surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of reproducible disruptive factors on the surgeon’s work. In a cross-sectional investigation, surgeons were tested with regard to the impact of different disruptive factors when doing exercises on a robotic-surgery simulator (Mimic Flex VRTM). Additionally, we collected data about the participants’ professional experience, gender, age, expertise in playing an instrument, and expertise in playing video games. The data were collected during DRUS 2019 (Symposium of the German Society for Robot-assisted Urology). Forty-two surgeons attending DRUS 2019 were asked to participate in a virtual robotic stress training unit. The surgeons worked in various specialties (visceral surgery, gynecology, and urology) and had different levels of expertise. The time taken to complete the exercise (TTCE), the final score (FSC), and blood loss (BL) were measured. In the basic exercise with an interactive disruption, TTCE was significantly longer (p < 0.01) and FSC significantly lower (p < 0.05). No significant difference in TTCE, FSC, or BL was noted in the advanced exercise with acoustic disruption. Performance during disruption was not dependent on the level of surgical experience, gender, age, expertise in playing an instrument, or playing video games. A positive correlation was registered between self-estimation and surgical experience. Interactive disruptions have a greater impact on the performance of a surgeon than acoustic ones. Disruption affects the performance of experienced as well as inexperienced surgeons. Disruption in daily surgery should be evaluated and minimized in the interest of the patient’s safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: laparoscopy; virtual reality trainer; robotic surgery; complications; surgical education; disruption during surgery laparoscopy; virtual reality trainer; robotic surgery; complications; surgical education; disruption during surgery
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Krüger, M.; Ackermann, J.; Osmonov, D.; Günther, V.; Bauerschlag, D.; Hensler, J.; Egberts, J.-H.; Lippross, S.; Gitas, G.; Becker, T.; Maass, N.; Jünemann, K.-P.; Alkatout, I. Impact of Acoustic and Interactive Disruptive Factors during Robot-Assisted Surgery—A Virtual Surgical Training Model. Sensors 2020, 20, 5891.

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