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Detection of Volatile Compounds Emitted by Bacteria in Wounds Using Gas Sensors

1
eVIDA Research Group, University of Deusto, 48007 Bilbao, Spain
2
Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science (CECS), University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
3
Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071523
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Context Awareness in Health Care through Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Abstract

In this paper we analyze an experiment for the use of low-cost gas sensors intended to detect bacteria in wounds using a non-intrusive technique. Seven different genera/species of microbes tend to be present in most wound infections. Detection of these bacteria usually requires sample and laboratory testing which is costly, inconvenient and time-consuming. The validation processes for these sensors with nineteen types of microbes (1 Candida, 2 Enterococcus, 6 Staphylococcus, 1 Aeromonas, 1 Micrococcus, 2 E. coli and 6 Pseudomonas) are presented here, in which four sensors were evaluated: TGS-826 used for ammonia and amines, MQ-3 used for alcohol detection, MQ-135 for CO2 and MQ-138 for acetone detection. Validation was undertaken by studying the behavior of the sensors at different distances and gas concentrations. Preliminary results with liquid cultures of 108 CFU/mL and solid cultures of 108 CFU/cm2 of the 6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains revealed that the four gas sensors showed a response at a height of 5 mm. The ammonia detection response of the TGS-826 to Pseudomonas showed the highest responses for the experimental samples over the background signals, with a difference between the values of up to 60 units in the solid samples and the most consistent and constant values. This could suggest that this sensor is a good detector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the recording made of its values could be indicative of the detection of this species. All the species revealed similar CO2 emission and a high response rate with acetone for Micrococcus, Aeromonas and Staphylococcus. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas sensors; Pseudomonas; Raspberry Pi; Arduino; wound infection gas sensors; Pseudomonas; Raspberry Pi; Arduino; wound infection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Salinas Alvarez, C.; Sierra-Sosa, D.; Garcia-Zapirain, B.; Yoder-Himes, D.; Elmaghraby, A. Detection of Volatile Compounds Emitted by Bacteria in Wounds Using Gas Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 1523.

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