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Open AccessArticle

Geographic and Opportunistic Recovery with Depth and Power Transmission Adjustment for Energy-Efficiency and Void Hole Alleviation in UWSNs

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Korea
3
Wah Campus, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Cantonment 47040, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030709
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Ocean: Emerging Research Advances, Prospects and Challenges)
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and emerging frameworks having a wide range of applications. The underwater sensor deployment is beneficial; however, some factors limit the performance of the network, i.e., less reliability, high end-to-end delay and maximum energy dissipation. The provisioning of the aforementioned factors has become a challenging task for the research community. In UWSNs, battery consumption is inevitable and has a direct impact on the performance of the network. Most of the time energy dissipates due to the creation of void holes and imbalanced network deployment. In this work, two routing protocols are proposed to avoid the void hole and extra energy dissipation problems which, due to which lifespan of the network increases. To show the efficacy of the proposed routing schemes, they are compared with the state of the art protocols. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform the counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: GEDPAR; void holes; energy efficiency; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); depth adjustment; transmission range GEDPAR; void holes; energy efficiency; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); depth adjustment; transmission range
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Mateen, A.; Awais, M.; Javaid, N.; Ishmanov, F.; Afzal, M.K.; Kazmi, S. Geographic and Opportunistic Recovery with Depth and Power Transmission Adjustment for Energy-Efficiency and Void Hole Alleviation in UWSNs. Sensors 2019, 19, 709.

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