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Open AccessArticle

A Fog Computing Enabled Virtual Power Plant Model for Delivery of Frequency Restoration Reserve Services

1
Computer Science Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Memorandumului 28, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
R&D Department, Engineering and Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Via San Martino della Battaglia 56, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214688
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Based Smart Grid in Internet of Things Era)
Nowadays, centralized energy grid systems are transitioning towards more decentralized systems driven by the need for efficient local integration of new deployed small scale renewable energy sources. The high limits for accessing the energy markets and also for the delivery of ancillary services act as a barrier for small scale prosumers participation forcing the implementation of new cooperative business models at the local level. This paper is proposing a fog computing infrastructure for the local management of energy systems and the creation of coalitions of prosumers able to provide ancillary services to the grid. It features an edge devices layer for energy monitoring of individual prosumers, a fog layer providing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) techniques for managing local energy systems by implementing cooperative models, and a cloud layer where the service specific technical requirements are defined. On top, a model has been defined allowing the dynamical construction of coalitions of prosumers as Virtual Power Plants at the fog layer for the provisioning of frequency restoration reserve services while considering both the prosumers’ local constraints and the service ones as well as the constituents’ profit maximization. Simulation results show our solution effectiveness in selecting the optimal coalition of prosumers to reliably deliver the service meeting the technical constraints while featuring a low time and computation overhead being feasible to be run closer to the edge. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart energy grid; virtual power plants; fog computing; modeling; simulation; frequency restoration reserve smart energy grid; virtual power plants; fog computing; modeling; simulation; frequency restoration reserve
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Pop, C.; Antal, M.; Cioara, T.; Anghel, I.; Salomie, I.; Bertoncini, M. A Fog Computing Enabled Virtual Power Plant Model for Delivery of Frequency Restoration Reserve Services. Sensors 2019, 19, 4688.

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