Aimed at the problem of obstacle detection in farmland, the research proposed to adopt the method of farmland information acquisition based on unmanned aerial vehicle landmark image, and improved the method of extracting obstacle boundary based on standard correlation coefficient template matching and assessed the influence of different image resolutions on the precision of obstacle extraction. Analyzing the RGB image of farmland acquired by unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology, this research got the following results. Firstly, we applied a method automatically registering coordinates, and the average deviations on the X and Y direction were 4.6 cm and 12.0 cm respectively, while the average deviations manually by ArcGIS were 4.6 cm and 5.7 cm. Secondly, with an improvement on the step of the traditional correlation coefficient template matching, we reduced the time of template matching from 12.2 s to 4.6 s. The average deviation between edge length of obstacles calculated by corner points extracted by the algorithm and that by actual measurement was 4.0 cm. Lastly, by compressing the original image on a different ratio, when the pixel reached 735 × 2174 (the image resolution reached 6 cm), the obstacle boundary was extracted based on correlation coefficient template matching, the average deviations of boundary points I of six obstacles on the X and Y were respectively 0.87 and 0.95 cm, and the whole process of detection took about 3.1 s. To sum up, it can be concluded that the algorithm of automatically registered coordinates and of automatically extracted obstacle boundary, which were designed in this research, can be applied to the establishment of a basic information collection system for navigation in future study. The best image pixel of obstacle boundary detection proposed after integrating the detection precision and detection time can be the theoretical basis for deciding the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing image resolution.
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