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Open AccessArticle

An Automatic Stationary Water Color Parameters Observation System for Shallow Waters: Designment and Applications

1
State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
The Second Design and Research Institute of Water Conservancy Hydropower of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 50021, China
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School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
4
CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4360; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204360
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Measurements of the above-water spectrum and concerned water color parameters (WCPs) are crucial for research and applications in water environment remote sensing. Due to the lack of system integration and automatization, conventional methods are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and prone to subjective influences. To obtain a highly accurate and long-term consistent spectrum and concurrent WCPs (Chl-a (chlorophyll-a), turbidity, and CDOM (Colored Dissolved Organic Matter)) data with a relatively low cost, an Automatic Stationary Water Color Parameters Observation System (AFWCPOS) was developed. Controlled by an automatic platform, the spectral and WCPs data were collected by TriOS RAMSES hyperspectral spectroradiometers and WETLabs ECO (Environmental Characterization Optics) fluorometers following the measurement protocol. Experiment and initial validations of AFWCPOS were carried out in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, from 20 to 28 July 2013. Results proved that the spectral data from AFWCPOS were highly consistent with the commonly used portable SVC (Spectra Vista Corporation) HR-1024 field spectroradiometer, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96, unbiased percent difference (UPD) of 0.14, and mean relative difference (MRD) of 0.078. With advantages of continuous and high degrees of automation monitoring, the AFWCPOS has great potential in capture diurnal and inter-diurnal variations in the test site of Poyang Lake, as well as another high-dynamic shallow coastal and inland waters, which will benefit routine water quality monitoring with high quality and high-frequency time-series observations. In addition, a successful case based on Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) image and in-situ data collected by AFWCPOS showed it’s potential in remote sensing applications. The spatial distribution of Chl-a, turbidity, and CDOM were mapped, which were explainable and similar to previous researches. These results showed our system was able to obtain reliable and valuable data for water environment monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water-leaving reflectance; above-water method; automatic sun-tracking platform; water color parameters; wireless transmission Water-leaving reflectance; above-water method; automatic sun-tracking platform; water color parameters; wireless transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Tian, L.; Guo, S.; Li, J.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L. An Automatic Stationary Water Color Parameters Observation System for Shallow Waters: Designment and Applications. Sensors 2019, 19, 4360.

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