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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Assessment of Sleep-Related Parameters by Passive Infrared Sensors: Measurement Setup, Feature Extraction, and Uncertainty Analysis

Department of Industrial Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173773
Received: 22 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing Technologies for Ambient Assisted Living and Smart Homes)
A simple sleep monitoring measurement method is presented in this paper, based on a simple, non-invasive motion sensor, the Passive InfraRed (PIR) motion sensor. The easy measurement set-up proposed is presented and its performances are compared with the ones provided by a commercial, ballistocardiographic bed sensor, used as reference tool. Testing was conducted on 25 nocturnal acquisitions with a voluntary, healthy subject, using the PIR-based proposed method and the reference sensor, simultaneously. A dedicated algorithm was developed to correlate the bed sensor outputs with the PIR signal to extract sleep-related features: sleep latency (SL), sleep interruptions (INT), and time to wake (TTW). Such sleep parameters were automatically identified by the algorithm, and then correlated to the ones computed by the reference bed sensor. The identification of these sleep parameters allowed the computation of an important, global sleep quality parameter: the sleep efficiency (SE). It was calculated for each nocturnal acquisition and then correlated to the SE values provided by the reference sensor. Results show the correlation between the SE values monitored with the PIR and the bed sensor with a robust statistic confidence of 4.7% for the measurement of SE (coverage parameter k = 2), indicating the validity of the proposed, unobstructive approach, based on a simple, small, and low-cost sensor, for the assessment of important sleep-related parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: PIR sensor; home measurements; sleep-related parameters; sleep latency; sleep interruptions; time to wake; sleep efficiency PIR sensor; home measurements; sleep-related parameters; sleep latency; sleep interruptions; time to wake; sleep efficiency
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Casaccia, S.; Braccili, E.; Scalise, L.; Revel, G.M. Experimental Assessment of Sleep-Related Parameters by Passive Infrared Sensors: Measurement Setup, Feature Extraction, and Uncertainty Analysis. Sensors 2019, 19, 3773.

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